Female athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport: A focus on scientific rigor

Nancy I. Williams, Kristen J. Koltun, Nicole C.A. Strock, Mary Jane De Souza

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Scopus citations


We examine the scientific evidence supporting The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndromes. More research is necessary to advance the understanding of both syndromes; however, it is premature to consider RED-S as an evidence-based syndrome. Future research should specifically define RED-S components, determine its clinical relevance, and establish the causality of relative energy deficiency on RED-S outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)197-205
Number of pages9
JournalExercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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