BACKGROUND: Optimal femoral fixation of soft-tissue grafts has been described for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Posterolateral corner reconstruction differs from ACL reconstruction in two ways: (a) soft-tissue fixation into the femur requires two tails and (b) the line of force is different. Our purpose was to determine the optimal femoral fixation of soft-tissue grafts during posterolateral corner reconstructions. We hypothesized that interference screw fixation is the strongest technique in normal-density lateral femoral condyle, whereas, cortically-based fixation techniques are stronger methods in low-density lateral femoral condyle.
METHODS: We evaluated elongation during cyclic loading, yield load, peak load-to-failure, and stiffness of four soft-tissue graft femoral fixation methods during posterolateral corner reconstruction. Our model included bovine flexor tendons and contoured synthetic bones. Grafts were secured to the lateral epicondyle in normal- or low-density bone models using spiked washer, button, interference screw, or button and interference screw. Five specimens for each were tested in each bone density. Analysis of variance using Tukey-Kramer adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing was used. Six cadaver bones whose density was analyzed using computerized tomography scan quantitation were tested using interference screw fixation.
RESULTS: No method produced significantly stronger yield load or peak load-to-failure in normal-density bone. In low-density bone, cortically-based methods produced significantly higher yield load or peak load-to-failure. Yield load or peak load-to-failure was significantly higher in normal-density bone when using spiked washer or interference screw fixation.
CONCLUSION: No femoral fixation method tested produced superior yield load or peak load-to-failure. Spiked washer and interference screw fixation are inferior fixation methods in low-density bone.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: For fibular-based posterolateral corner reconstructions, all fixation methods tested are acceptable in high-density bone, while cortical fixation methods should be considered in low-density bone.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine