Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, W. B. Atwood, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, P. N. Bhat, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. BouvierT. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. S. Briggs, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, A. W. Chen, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, V. Connaughton, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, C. D. Dermer, A. De Angelis, F. De Palma, S. W. Digel, B. L. Dingus, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, J. Finke, P. Fortin, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, R. C. Gilmore, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, J. Granot, J. Greiner, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, S. Guiriec, M. Gustafsson, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, D. Kocevski, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Llena Garde, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, A. Makeev, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, J. Mehault, P. Mészáros, P. F. Michelson, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, E. Moretti, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, T. Nakamori, M. Naumann-Godo, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, M. Ohno, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, M. Ozaki, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, J. R. Primack, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, S. Razzaque, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, L. C. Reyes, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, R. W. Romani, M. Roth, H. F.W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J. D. Scargle, T. L. Schalk, C. Sgrò, M. S. Shaw, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, F. W. Stecker, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. Von Kienlin, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, C. Wilson-Hodge, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, R. Yamazaki, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, M. Ziegler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

116 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1082-1096
Number of pages15
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume723
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 10 2010

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opacity
rays
universe
gamma rays
telescopes
blazars
gamma ray bursts
wavelength
energy
attenuation
light intensity
photons
wavelengths
luminous intensity
confidence
prediction
propagation
predictions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Abdo, A. A., Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Allafort, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., ... Ziegler, M. (2010). Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. Astrophysical Journal, 723(2), 1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082
Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Atwood, W. B. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Baring, M. G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Bhat, P. N. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bouvier, A. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Briggs, M. S. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carrigan, S. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Chen, A. W. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Connaughton, V. ; Conrad, J. ; Costamante, L. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Palma, F. ; Digel, S. W. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Finke, J. ; Fortin, P. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Gilmore, R. C. ; Giommi, P. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Granot, J. ; Greiner, J. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Grove, J. E. ; Guiriec, S. ; Gustafsson, M. ; Hadasch, D. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Horan, D. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, R. P. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, J. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kocevski, D. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Latronico, L. ; Lee, S. H. ; Llena Garde, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Makeev, A. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McConville, W. ; McEnery, J. E. ; McGlynn, S. ; Mehault, J. ; Mészáros, P. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Moretti, E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Nakamori, T. ; Naumann-Godo, M. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohno, M. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Okumura, A. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Ozaki, M. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Porter, T. A. ; Primack, J. R. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Razzaque, S. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Ripken, J. ; Ritz, S. ; Romani, R. W. ; Roth, M. ; Sadrozinski, H. F.W. ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Scargle, J. D. ; Schalk, T. L. ; Sgrò, C. ; Shaw, M. S. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stecker, F. W. ; Strickman, M. S. ; Suson, D. J. ; Tajima, H. ; Takahashi, H. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vilchez, N. ; Vitale, V. ; Von Kienlin, A. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Wilson-Hodge, C. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yamazaki, R. ; Yang, Z. ; Ylinen, T. ; Ziegler, M. / Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 723, No. 2. pp. 1082-1096.
@article{adcb0a35d34042238eade47d06aa9562,
title = "Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe",
abstract = "The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the {"}baseline{"} model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.",
author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and Atwood, {W. B.} and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and Baring, {M. G.} and D. Bastieri and Baughman, {B. M.} and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Bhat, {P. N.} and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and A. Bouvier and Brandt, {T. J.} and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and Briggs, {M. S.} and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and Burnett, {T. H.} and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and Caraveo, {P. A.} and S. Carrigan and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and {\"O} {\cC}elik and E. Charles and A. Chekhtman and Chen, {A. W.} and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and V. Connaughton and J. Conrad and L. Costamante and Dermer, {C. D.} and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Palma}, F. and Digel, {S. W.} and Dingus, {B. L.} and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and J. Finke and P. Fortin and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and Gilmore, {R. C.} and P. Giommi and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and J. Granot and J. Greiner and Grenier, {I. A.} and Grove, {J. E.} and S. Guiriec and M. Gustafsson and D. Hadasch and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and D. Horan and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {R. P.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and J. Kataoka and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and D. Kocevski and M. Kuss and J. Lande and L. Latronico and Lee, {S. H.} and {Llena Garde}, M. and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and A. Makeev and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and W. McConville and McEnery, {J. E.} and S. McGlynn and J. Mehault and P. M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and Michelson, {P. F.} and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and E. Moretti and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and T. Nakamori and M. Naumann-Godo and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and M. Ohno and T. Ohsugi and A. Okumura and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and M. Ozaki and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Pesce-Rollins and F. Piron and Porter, {T. A.} and Primack, {J. R.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and S. Razzaque and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and Reyes, {L. C.} and J. Ripken and S. Ritz and Romani, {R. W.} and M. Roth and Sadrozinski, {H. F.W.} and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and Scargle, {J. D.} and Schalk, {T. L.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Shaw, {M. S.} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and Stecker, {F. W.} and Strickman, {M. S.} and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Tajima and H. Takahashi and T. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and Y. Uchiyama and Usher, {T. L.} and J. Vandenbroucke and V. Vasileiou and N. Vilchez and V. Vitale and {Von Kienlin}, A. and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and C. Wilson-Hodge and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and R. Yamazaki and Z. Yang and T. Ylinen and M. Ziegler",
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Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Atwood, WB, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Baring, MG, Bastieri, D, Baughman, BM, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Bhat, PN, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bouvier, A, Brandt, TJ, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Briggs, MS, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Burnett, TH, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Caraveo, PA, Carrigan, S, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Chen, AW, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Connaughton, V, Conrad, J, Costamante, L, Dermer, CD, De Angelis, A, De Palma, F, Digel, SW, Dingus, BL, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Finke, J, Fortin, P, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Gilmore, RC, Giommi, P, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Granot, J, Greiner, J, Grenier, IA, Grove, JE, Guiriec, S, Gustafsson, M, Hadasch, D, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Horan, D, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, RP, Johnson, WN, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kocevski, D, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Latronico, L, Lee, SH, Llena Garde, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Makeev, A, Mazziotta, MN, McConville, W, McEnery, JE, McGlynn, S, Mehault, J, Mészáros, P, Michelson, PF, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Moretti, E, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Nakamori, T, Naumann-Godo, M, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohno, M, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Ozaki, M, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Porter, TA, Primack, JR, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Razzaque, S, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Reyes, LC, Ripken, J, Ritz, S, Romani, RW, Roth, M, Sadrozinski, HFW, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Scargle, JD, Schalk, TL, Sgrò, C, Shaw, MS, Siskind, EJ, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stecker, FW, Strickman, MS, Suson, DJ, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vilchez, N, Vitale, V, Von Kienlin, A, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Wilson-Hodge, C, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Yamazaki, R, Yang, Z, Ylinen, T & Ziegler, M 2010, 'Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 723, no. 2, pp. 1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. / Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Dermer, C. D.; De Angelis, A.; De Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dingus, B. L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Gilmore, R. C.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. H.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Primack, J. R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 723, No. 2, 10.11.2010, p. 1082-1096.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

AU - Abdo, A. A.

AU - Ackermann, M.

AU - Ajello, M.

AU - Allafort, A.

AU - Atwood, W. B.

AU - Baldini, L.

AU - Ballet, J.

AU - Barbiellini, G.

AU - Baring, M. G.

AU - Bastieri, D.

AU - Baughman, B. M.

AU - Bechtol, K.

AU - Bellazzini, R.

AU - Berenji, B.

AU - Bhat, P. N.

AU - Blandford, R. D.

AU - Bloom, E. D.

AU - Bonamente, E.

AU - Borgland, A. W.

AU - Bouvier, A.

AU - Brandt, T. J.

AU - Bregeon, J.

AU - Brez, A.

AU - Briggs, M. S.

AU - Brigida, M.

AU - Bruel, P.

AU - Buehler, R.

AU - Burnett, T. H.

AU - Buson, S.

AU - Caliandro, G. A.

AU - Cameron, R. A.

AU - Caraveo, P. A.

AU - Carrigan, S.

AU - Casandjian, J. M.

AU - Cavazzuti, E.

AU - Cecchi, C.

AU - Çelik, Ö

AU - Charles, E.

AU - Chekhtman, A.

AU - Chen, A. W.

AU - Cheung, C. C.

AU - Chiang, J.

AU - Ciprini, S.

AU - Claus, R.

AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

AU - Connaughton, V.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Costamante, L.

AU - Dermer, C. D.

AU - De Angelis, A.

AU - De Palma, F.

AU - Digel, S. W.

AU - Dingus, B. L.

AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

AU - Drell, P. S.

AU - Dubois, R.

AU - Favuzzi, C.

AU - Fegan, S. J.

AU - Finke, J.

AU - Fortin, P.

AU - Fukazawa, Y.

AU - Funk, S.

AU - Fusco, P.

AU - Gargano, F.

AU - Gasparrini, D.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Germani, S.

AU - Giglietto, N.

AU - Gilmore, R. C.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Giordano, F.

AU - Giroletti, M.

AU - Glanzman, T.

AU - Godfrey, G.

AU - Granot, J.

AU - Greiner, J.

AU - Grenier, I. A.

AU - Grove, J. E.

AU - Guiriec, S.

AU - Gustafsson, M.

AU - Hadasch, D.

AU - Hayashida, M.

AU - Hays, E.

AU - Horan, D.

AU - Hughes, R. E.

AU - Jóhannesson, G.

AU - Johnson, A. S.

AU - Johnson, R. P.

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PY - 2010/11/10

Y1 - 2010/11/10

N2 - The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

AB - The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift-and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the?-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the "baseline" model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650101378&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650101378&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:78650101378

VL - 723

SP - 1082

EP - 1096

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

ER -

Abdo AA, Ackermann M, Ajello M, Allafort A, Atwood WB, Baldini L et al. Fermi Large Area Telescope constraints on the gamma-ray opacity of the universe. Astrophysical Journal. 2010 Nov 10;723(2):1082-1096. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1082