Five-year growth trajectories of kindergarten children with learning difficulties in mathematics

Paul L. Morgan, George Farkas, Qiong Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

118 Scopus citations


The investigators used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently displaying MD (i.e., those experiencing MD in both fall and spring of kindergarten) had the lowest subsequent growth rates, children with MD in spring only had the second-lowest growth rates, and children with MD in the fall only (and who had thus recovered from their MD by the spring of kindergarten) had the next-lowest growth rates. The children who did not have MD in either fall or spring of kindergarten had the highest growth rates. These results were observed prior to and after statistical control for additional variables. They indicate that measuring the timing and persistence of kindergarten children's mathematics learning difficulties may help identify those most at risk for failing to become mathematically proficient during elementary school.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)306-321
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of learning disabilities
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2009


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • Health Professions(all)

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