Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging

Daniel Doleiden, Wyatt Culler, Ankit Tyagi, Stephen Peluso, Jacqueline O’Connor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The characterization and mitigation of thermoacoustic combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines is necessary to reduce pollutant emissions, premature wear, and component failure associated with unstable flames. Fuel staging, a technique in which the fuel flow to a multi-nozzle combustor is unevenly distributed between the nozzles, has been shown to mitigate the intensity of self-excited combustion instabilities in multiple nozzle combustors. In our previous work, we hypothesized that staging suppresses instability through a phase-cancellation effect in which the heat release rate from the staged nozzle oscillates out of phase with that of the other nozzles, leading to destructive interference that suppresses the instability. This previous theory, however, was based on chemiluminescence imaging, which is a line-of-sight integrated technique. In this work, we use high-speed laser-induced fluorescence to further investigate instability suppression in two staging configurations: center-nozzle and outer-nozzle staging. An edge-tracking algorithm is used to compute local flame edge displacement as a function of time, allowing instability-driven edge oscillation phase coherence and other instantaneous flame dynamics to be spectrally and spatially resolved. Analysis of flame edge oscillations shows the presence of convecting coherent fluctuations of the flame edge caused by periodic vortex shedding. When the system is unstable, these two flame edges oscillate together as a result of high-intensity longitudinal-mode acoustic oscillations in the combustor that drive periodic vortex shedding at each of the nozzle exits. In the stable cases, however, the phase between the oscillations of the center and outer flame edges is greater than 90 degrees (~114 degrees), suggesting that the phase-cancellation hypothesis may be valid. This analysis allows a better understanding of the instantaneous flame dynamics behind flame edge oscillation phase offset and fuel staging-based instability suppression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCombustion, Fuels, and Emissions
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ISBN (Electronic)9780791858622
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
EventASME Turbo Expo 2019: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2019 - Phoenix, United States
Duration: Jun 17 2019Jun 21 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo
Volume4B-2019

Conference

ConferenceASME Turbo Expo 2019: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2019
CountryUnited States
CityPhoenix
Period6/17/196/21/19

Fingerprint

Combustors
Nozzles
Vortex shedding
Thermoacoustics
Chemiluminescence
Gas turbines
Turbines
Fluorescence
Wear of materials
Imaging techniques
Lasers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Doleiden, D., Culler, W., Tyagi, A., Peluso, S., & O’Connor, J. (2019). Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging. In Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo; Vol. 4B-2019). American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2019-91656
Doleiden, Daniel ; Culler, Wyatt ; Tyagi, Ankit ; Peluso, Stephen ; O’Connor, Jacqueline. / Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging. Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2019. (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo).
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abstract = "The characterization and mitigation of thermoacoustic combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines is necessary to reduce pollutant emissions, premature wear, and component failure associated with unstable flames. Fuel staging, a technique in which the fuel flow to a multi-nozzle combustor is unevenly distributed between the nozzles, has been shown to mitigate the intensity of self-excited combustion instabilities in multiple nozzle combustors. In our previous work, we hypothesized that staging suppresses instability through a phase-cancellation effect in which the heat release rate from the staged nozzle oscillates out of phase with that of the other nozzles, leading to destructive interference that suppresses the instability. This previous theory, however, was based on chemiluminescence imaging, which is a line-of-sight integrated technique. In this work, we use high-speed laser-induced fluorescence to further investigate instability suppression in two staging configurations: center-nozzle and outer-nozzle staging. An edge-tracking algorithm is used to compute local flame edge displacement as a function of time, allowing instability-driven edge oscillation phase coherence and other instantaneous flame dynamics to be spectrally and spatially resolved. Analysis of flame edge oscillations shows the presence of convecting coherent fluctuations of the flame edge caused by periodic vortex shedding. When the system is unstable, these two flame edges oscillate together as a result of high-intensity longitudinal-mode acoustic oscillations in the combustor that drive periodic vortex shedding at each of the nozzle exits. In the stable cases, however, the phase between the oscillations of the center and outer flame edges is greater than 90 degrees (~114 degrees), suggesting that the phase-cancellation hypothesis may be valid. This analysis allows a better understanding of the instantaneous flame dynamics behind flame edge oscillation phase offset and fuel staging-based instability suppression.",
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Doleiden, D, Culler, W, Tyagi, A, Peluso, S & O’Connor, J 2019, Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging. in Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions. Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, vol. 4B-2019, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME Turbo Expo 2019: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2019, Phoenix, United States, 6/17/19. https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2019-91656

Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging. / Doleiden, Daniel; Culler, Wyatt; Tyagi, Ankit; Peluso, Stephen; O’Connor, Jacqueline.

Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 2019. (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo; Vol. 4B-2019).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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Doleiden D, Culler W, Tyagi A, Peluso S, O’Connor J. Flame edge dynamics and interaction in a multi-nozzle Can combustor with fuel staging. In Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 2019. (Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo). https://doi.org/10.1115/GT2019-91656