Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery

Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Thomas J. Polascik, Stephen L. George, Boyd R. Switzer, John F. Madden, Mack T. Ruffin IV, Denise C. Snyder, Kouros Owzar, Vera Hars, David M. Albala, Philip J. Walther, Cary N. Robertson, Judd W. Moul, Barbara K. Dunn, Dean Brenner, Lori Minasian, Philip Stella, Robin T. Vollmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Prostate cancer affects one of six men during their lifetime. Dietary factors are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Low-fat diets and flaxseed supplementation may offer potentially protective strategies. Methods: We undertook a multisite, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of low-fat and/or flaxseed-supplemented diets on the biology of the prostate and other biomarkers. Prostate cancer patients (n = 161) scheduled at least 21 days before prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of the following arms: (a) control (usual diet), (b) flaxseed-supplemented diet (30 g/d), (c) low-fat diet (<20% total energy), or (d) flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. Blood was drawn at baseline and before surgery and analyzed for prostate-specific antigen, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3, C-reactive protein, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Tumors were assessed for proliferation (Ki-67, the primary endpoint) and apoptosis. Results: Men were on protocol an average of 30 days. Proliferation rates were significantly lower (P < 0.002) among men assigned to the flaxseed arms. Median Ki-67-positive cells/total nuclei ratios (x100) were 1.66 (flaxseed-supplemented diet) and 1.50 (flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet) versus 3.23 (control) and 2.56 (low-fat diet). No differences were observed between arms with regard to side effects, apoptosis, and most serologic endpoints; however, men on low-fat diets experienced significant decreases in serum cholesterol (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. Data also further support low-fat diets to manage serum cholesterol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3577-3587
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume17
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2008

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Flax
Dietary Fats
Fat-Restricted Diet
Prostatic Neoplasms
Diet
Cholesterol
Apoptosis
Dilatation and Curettage
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Prostatectomy
Protein C
Cell Nucleus
Serum
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
C-Reactive Protein
LDL Cholesterol
Testosterone
Prostate

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy ; Polascik, Thomas J. ; George, Stephen L. ; Switzer, Boyd R. ; Madden, John F. ; Ruffin IV, Mack T. ; Snyder, Denise C. ; Owzar, Kouros ; Hars, Vera ; Albala, David M. ; Walther, Philip J. ; Robertson, Cary N. ; Moul, Judd W. ; Dunn, Barbara K. ; Brenner, Dean ; Minasian, Lori ; Stella, Philip ; Vollmer, Robin T. / Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2008 ; Vol. 17, No. 12. pp. 3577-3587.
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title = "Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery",
abstract = "Background: Prostate cancer affects one of six men during their lifetime. Dietary factors are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Low-fat diets and flaxseed supplementation may offer potentially protective strategies. Methods: We undertook a multisite, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of low-fat and/or flaxseed-supplemented diets on the biology of the prostate and other biomarkers. Prostate cancer patients (n = 161) scheduled at least 21 days before prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of the following arms: (a) control (usual diet), (b) flaxseed-supplemented diet (30 g/d), (c) low-fat diet (<20{\%} total energy), or (d) flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. Blood was drawn at baseline and before surgery and analyzed for prostate-specific antigen, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3, C-reactive protein, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Tumors were assessed for proliferation (Ki-67, the primary endpoint) and apoptosis. Results: Men were on protocol an average of 30 days. Proliferation rates were significantly lower (P < 0.002) among men assigned to the flaxseed arms. Median Ki-67-positive cells/total nuclei ratios (x100) were 1.66 (flaxseed-supplemented diet) and 1.50 (flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet) versus 3.23 (control) and 2.56 (low-fat diet). No differences were observed between arms with regard to side effects, apoptosis, and most serologic endpoints; however, men on low-fat diets experienced significant decreases in serum cholesterol (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. Data also further support low-fat diets to manage serum cholesterol.",
author = "Wendy Demark-Wahnefried and Polascik, {Thomas J.} and George, {Stephen L.} and Switzer, {Boyd R.} and Madden, {John F.} and {Ruffin IV}, {Mack T.} and Snyder, {Denise C.} and Kouros Owzar and Vera Hars and Albala, {David M.} and Walther, {Philip J.} and Robertson, {Cary N.} and Moul, {Judd W.} and Dunn, {Barbara K.} and Dean Brenner and Lori Minasian and Philip Stella and Vollmer, {Robin T.}",
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Demark-Wahnefried, W, Polascik, TJ, George, SL, Switzer, BR, Madden, JF, Ruffin IV, MT, Snyder, DC, Owzar, K, Hars, V, Albala, DM, Walther, PJ, Robertson, CN, Moul, JW, Dunn, BK, Brenner, D, Minasian, L, Stella, P & Vollmer, RT 2008, 'Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3577-3587. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0008

Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. / Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Polascik, Thomas J.; George, Stephen L.; Switzer, Boyd R.; Madden, John F.; Ruffin IV, Mack T.; Snyder, Denise C.; Owzar, Kouros; Hars, Vera; Albala, David M.; Walther, Philip J.; Robertson, Cary N.; Moul, Judd W.; Dunn, Barbara K.; Brenner, Dean; Minasian, Lori; Stella, Philip; Vollmer, Robin T.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 17, No. 12, 01.12.2008, p. 3577-3587.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery

AU - Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

AU - Polascik, Thomas J.

AU - George, Stephen L.

AU - Switzer, Boyd R.

AU - Madden, John F.

AU - Ruffin IV, Mack T.

AU - Snyder, Denise C.

AU - Owzar, Kouros

AU - Hars, Vera

AU - Albala, David M.

AU - Walther, Philip J.

AU - Robertson, Cary N.

AU - Moul, Judd W.

AU - Dunn, Barbara K.

AU - Brenner, Dean

AU - Minasian, Lori

AU - Stella, Philip

AU - Vollmer, Robin T.

PY - 2008/12/1

Y1 - 2008/12/1

N2 - Background: Prostate cancer affects one of six men during their lifetime. Dietary factors are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Low-fat diets and flaxseed supplementation may offer potentially protective strategies. Methods: We undertook a multisite, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of low-fat and/or flaxseed-supplemented diets on the biology of the prostate and other biomarkers. Prostate cancer patients (n = 161) scheduled at least 21 days before prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of the following arms: (a) control (usual diet), (b) flaxseed-supplemented diet (30 g/d), (c) low-fat diet (<20% total energy), or (d) flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. Blood was drawn at baseline and before surgery and analyzed for prostate-specific antigen, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3, C-reactive protein, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Tumors were assessed for proliferation (Ki-67, the primary endpoint) and apoptosis. Results: Men were on protocol an average of 30 days. Proliferation rates were significantly lower (P < 0.002) among men assigned to the flaxseed arms. Median Ki-67-positive cells/total nuclei ratios (x100) were 1.66 (flaxseed-supplemented diet) and 1.50 (flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet) versus 3.23 (control) and 2.56 (low-fat diet). No differences were observed between arms with regard to side effects, apoptosis, and most serologic endpoints; however, men on low-fat diets experienced significant decreases in serum cholesterol (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. Data also further support low-fat diets to manage serum cholesterol.

AB - Background: Prostate cancer affects one of six men during their lifetime. Dietary factors are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Low-fat diets and flaxseed supplementation may offer potentially protective strategies. Methods: We undertook a multisite, randomized controlled trial to test the effects of low-fat and/or flaxseed-supplemented diets on the biology of the prostate and other biomarkers. Prostate cancer patients (n = 161) scheduled at least 21 days before prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of the following arms: (a) control (usual diet), (b) flaxseed-supplemented diet (30 g/d), (c) low-fat diet (<20% total energy), or (d) flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. Blood was drawn at baseline and before surgery and analyzed for prostate-specific antigen, sex hormone-binding globulin, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3, C-reactive protein, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Tumors were assessed for proliferation (Ki-67, the primary endpoint) and apoptosis. Results: Men were on protocol an average of 30 days. Proliferation rates were significantly lower (P < 0.002) among men assigned to the flaxseed arms. Median Ki-67-positive cells/total nuclei ratios (x100) were 1.66 (flaxseed-supplemented diet) and 1.50 (flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet) versus 3.23 (control) and 2.56 (low-fat diet). No differences were observed between arms with regard to side effects, apoptosis, and most serologic endpoints; however, men on low-fat diets experienced significant decreases in serum cholesterol (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Findings suggest that flaxseed is safe and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer. Data also further support low-fat diets to manage serum cholesterol.

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