Over the past decade, as the majority of patients with single ventricle anatomy who have undergone the Fontan operation reach adulthood, a newly recognized disease process, Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD), has emerged. FALD is an extracardiac complication that may lead to substantial comorbid disease and premature mortality. The risk factors, pathophysiology, longitudinal consequences, and therapeutic options related to FALD remain poorly defined. Although we recognize that Fontan circulatory properties are associated with extracardiac organ dysfunction, numerous gaps in our understanding of the nature of this relationship exist. Such extracardiac manifestations, in addition to other late complications of the circulation, can significantly affect quality of life and healthcare use. Therefore, to initiate a formal evaluation of FALD, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) sponsored a stakeholders meeting on October 1 to 2, 2015, in Washington, DC. The goal of the meeting was to bring together subspecialty experts in the fields of adult and pediatric hepatology, congenital cardiology (adult congenital and pediatric cardiology), heart failure/transplant, epidemiology, and cardiothoracic surgery, as well as patient advocates, patients, parents of children and young adults who have had the Fontan procedure, and research organizations and societies to discuss the current state of FALD. Topics included gaps in knowledge, optimal care, research opportunities and barriers, and sound practices to guide providers, patients, and families. This report summarizes findings from the stakeholders meeting and seeks to establish a platform for understanding and addressing FALD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine