Accidental spills and surface discharges of shale gas produced water could contaminate water resources and generate health concerns. The study explored the formation and speciation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of natural waters under the influence of shale gas produced water. Results showed the presence of produced water as low as 0.005% changed the DBP profile measurably. A shift to a more bromine substitution direction for the formation of trihalomethanes, dihaloacetic acids, trihaloacetic acids, and dihaloacetonitriles was illustrated by exploring the individual DBP species levels, bromine substitution factors, and DBP species fractions, and the effect was attributable to the introduction of bromide from produced water. The ratio of dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acids also increased, which was likely affected by different bromination degrees at elevated bromide concentrations. Increasing blend ratios of produced water enhanced the formation of DBPs, especially the brominated species, while such negative effects could be alleviated by pre-treating the produced water with ozone/air stripping to remove bromide. The study advances understandings about the impacts of produced water spills or surface discharges regarding potential violation of Stage 2 DBP rules at drinking water treatment facilities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal