Four-component power spectral density model of steady-state isometric force

Joseph P. Stitt, Karl M. Newell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a model based upon four identified characteristics of the power spectral density associated with isometric force at a range of constant force levels (5-95% maximum voluntary contraction). The characteristics modeled were: (1) a low-frequency resonant peak located at about 1 Hz; (2) a region of 1/f-like fractional Gaussian noise (fGn); (3) the resonant peak in the 8-12 Hz region on the PSD; and (4) Gaussian white noise resulting from a combination of neural as well as equipment noise. When superimposed, these components were used in a direct fit to the isometric force data to generate a linear predictor that resulted in residual values on the order of the white noise present in the original force time series.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Cybernetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Computer Science(all)


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