James E. Gunn, Michael Carr, G. Edward Danielson, Ernest O. Lorenz, Richard Luccinio, Victor E. Nenow, J. Devere Smith, James A. Westphal, Donald P. Schneider, Barbara A. Zimmerman

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We describe an astronomical camera for the 200-in. Hale telescope using four 800 multiplied by 800 Texas Instruments CCDs in an optical arrangement that allows imaging of a contiguous 1600-pixel-square region of sky. The system employs reimaging optics to yield a scale of 0. 33 arcsec per pixel, a good match to the best seeing conditions at Palomar Observatory. Modern high-efficiency coatings are used in the complex optical system to yield a throughput at peak efficiency of nearly 50% (including the losses in the telescope), corresponding to a quantum efficiency on the sky of about 30%. The system uses a fifth CCD in a Spectroscopic channel, and it is possible to obtain simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic observations with the system. The camera may also be used in a scanning mode, in which the telescope tracking rate is offset, and the charge is clocked in the chips in such a manner as to keep the charge image aligned with the optical image. In this way, a survey for high-redshift quasars has been carried out over a large area of sky.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)779-787
Number of pages9
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jan 1 1987


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Gunn, J. E., Carr, M., Danielson, G. E., Lorenz, E. O., Luccinio, R., Nenow, V. E., Smith, J. D., Westphal, J. A., Schneider, D. P., & Zimmerman, B. A. (1987). FOUR-SHOOTER: A LARGE FORMAT CHARGE-COUPLED-DEVICE CAMERA FOR THE HALE TELESCOPE. Optical Engineering, 26(8), 779-787.