We review recent exact results for the free expansion of impenetrable bosons on one-dimensional lattices, after switching off a confining potential. When the system is initially in a super-fluid state, far from the regime in which the Mott-insulator appears in the middle of the trap, the momentum distribution of the expanding bosons rapidly approaches the momentum distribution of non-interacting fermions. Remarkably, no loss in coherence is observed in the system as reflected by a large occupation of the lowest eigenstate of the one-particle density matrix. In the opposite limit, when the initial system is a pure Mott insulator with one particle per lattice site, the expansion leads to the emergence of quasicondensates at finite momentum. In this case, one-particle correlations like the ones shown to be universal in the equilibrium case develop in the system. We show that the out-of-equilibrium behavior of the Shannon information entropy in momentum space, and its contrast with one of non-interacting fermions, allows to differentiate the two different regimes of interest. It also helps in understanding the crossover between them.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics