Fresh and hardened properties of extrusion-based 3D-printed cementitious materials: A review

Zhanzhao Li, Maryam Hojati, Zhengyu Wu, Jonathon Piasente, Negar Ashrafi, José P. Duarte, Shadi Nazarian, Sven G. Bilén, Ali M. Memari, Aleksandra Radlińska

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


3D-printing of cementitious materials is an innovative construction approach with which building elements can be constructed without the use of formwork. Despite potential benefits in the construction industry, it introduces various engineering challenges from the material point of view. This paper reviews the properties of extrusion-based 3D-printed cementitious materials in both fresh and hardened states. Four main properties of fresh-state printing materials are addressed: flowability, extrudability, buildability, and open time, along with hardened properties, including density, compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile bond strength, shrinkage, and cracking. Experimental testing and effective factors of each property are covered, and a mix design procedure is proposed. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent development in 3D-printing of cementitious materials and to identify the research gaps that need further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5628
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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