Nature relies on a wide range of enzymes with specific biocatalytic roles to carry out much of the chemistry needed to sustain life. Enzymes catalyze the interconversion of a vast array of molecules with high specificity—from molecular nitrogen fixation to the synthesis of highly specialized hormones and quorum-sensing molecules. Ever increasing emphasis on renewable sources for energy and waste minimization has turned enzymes into key industrial workhorses for targeted chemical conversions. Modern enzymology is central to not only food and beverage manufacturing processes but also finds relevance in countless consumer product formulations such as proteolytic enzymes in detergents, amylases for excess bleach removal from textiles, proteases in meat tenderization, and lactoperoxidases in dairy products. Herein, we present an overview of enzyme science and engineering milestones and the emergence of directed evolution of enzymes for which the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Dr. Frances Arnold.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Chemical Engineering(all)