The TonB system actively transports large, scarce, and important nutrients through outer membrane (OM) transporters of Gram-negative bacteria using the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). In Escherichia coli, the CM proteins ExbB and ExbD harness and transfer proton motive force energy to the CM protein TonB, which spans the periplasmic space and cyclically bindsOMtransporters. TonB has two activity domains: the amino-terminal transmembrane domain with residue H20 and the periplasmic carboxy terminus, through which it binds toOMtransporters. TonB is inactivated by all substitutions at residue H20 except H20N. Here, we show that while TonB trapped as a homodimer through its amino-terminal domain retained full activity, trapping TonB through its carboxy terminus inactivated it by preventing conformational changes needed for interaction withOMtransporters. Surprisingly, inactive TonB H20A had little effect on homodimerization through the amino terminus and instead decreased TonB carboxy-terminal homodimer formation prior to reinitiation of an energy transduction cycle. That result suggested that the TonB carboxy terminus ultimately interacts withOMtransporters as a monomer. Our findings also suggested the existence of a separate equimolar pool of ExbD homodimers that are not in contact with TonB. A model is proposed where interaction of TonB homodimers with ExbD homodimers initiates the energy transduction cycle, and, ultimately, the ExbD carboxy terminus modulates interactions of a monomeric TonB carboxy terminus withOMtransporters. After TonB exchanges its interaction with ExbD for interaction with a transporter, ExbD homodimers undergo a separate cycle needed to re-energize them.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology