From patterns to processes

Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle

Nils C. Stenseth, Wilhelm Falck, Kung Sik Chan, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Mark O'Donoghue, Howell Tong, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin, Charles J. Krebs, Nigel G. Yoccoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

115 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10- year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density- dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15430-15435
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume95
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 22 1998

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Lynx
Hares
Population Growth
North America
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Stenseth, Nils C. ; Falck, Wilhelm ; Chan, Kung Sik ; Bjornstad, Ottar N. ; O'Donoghue, Mark ; Tong, Howell ; Boonstra, Rudy ; Boutin, Stan ; Krebs, Charles J. ; Yoccoz, Nigel G. / From patterns to processes : Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1998 ; Vol. 95, No. 26. pp. 15430-15435.
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abstract = "Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10- year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density- dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases.",
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Stenseth, NC, Falck, W, Chan, KS, Bjornstad, ON, O'Donoghue, M, Tong, H, Boonstra, R, Boutin, S, Krebs, CJ & Yoccoz, NG 1998, 'From patterns to processes: Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 26, pp. 15430-15435. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.95.26.15430

From patterns to processes : Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle. / Stenseth, Nils C.; Falck, Wilhelm; Chan, Kung Sik; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; O'Donoghue, Mark; Tong, Howell; Boonstra, Rudy; Boutin, Stan; Krebs, Charles J.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 95, No. 26, 22.12.1998, p. 15430-15435.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - From patterns to processes

T2 - Phase and density dependencies in the Canadian lynx cycle

AU - Stenseth, Nils C.

AU - Falck, Wilhelm

AU - Chan, Kung Sik

AU - Bjornstad, Ottar N.

AU - O'Donoghue, Mark

AU - Tong, Howell

AU - Boonstra, Rudy

AU - Boutin, Stan

AU - Krebs, Charles J.

AU - Yoccoz, Nigel G.

PY - 1998/12/22

Y1 - 1998/12/22

N2 - Across the boreal forest of North America, lynx populations undergo 10- year cycles. Analysis of 21 time series from 1821 to the present demonstrates that these fluctuations are generated by nonlinear processes with regulatory delays. Trophic interactions between lynx and hares cause delayed density- dependent regulation of lynx population growth. The nonlinearity, in contrast, appears to arise from phase dependencies in hunting success by lynx through the cycle. Using a combined approach of empirical, statistical, and mathematical modeling, we highlight how shifts in trophic interactions between the lynx and the hare generate the nonlinear process primarily by shifting functional response curves during the increase and the decrease phases.

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