Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor

D. Imschweiler, M. McKeand, S. Y. Lee, S. Saretto, M. Linevsky, T. A. Litzinger, R. J. Santoro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The use of fuel additives is a well-established method for reducing particulate emissions produced in combustion systems. In the present study, the effects of organic fuel additives on soot emissions were investigated in a high-pressure model gas turbine dump combustor and an atmospheric turbulent spray burner using a laser extinction technique. The base fuel used in the current experiment was JP-8 which had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of approximately 0.48 determined directly by C-H analysis. Four additives were systematically investigated: the JP-8+100 thermal stability package (TSP), ethanol, diethyl maleate and an off-the-shelf commercially available additive consisting mainly of nitroalkanes, cyclohexanone, toluene, and dichloroethane (CAA). Measurements of the soot concentrations produced in the combustor at a location of 248 mm downstream from the dump plane indicated that the JP-8+100 thermal stability package, ethanol, and diethyl maleate did not lead to a measurable reduction of soot. In contrast, CAA showed a reduction of up to 30% in soot volume fraction. In addition, as part of the current study, reductions in soot concentrations were also investigated using an atmospheric turbulent spray burner. This experiment focused on testing the major components of CAA in order to isolate those components which are most effective in reducing soot concentrations, and to verify the overall effectiveness of CAA on soot reduction. It was found for the atmospheric turbulent spray burner, that of the components tested, cyclohexanone showed the most potential as an additive. However, no single component was found to be exclusively responsible for the soot reductions. The effect of the CAA on the pollutant emission when added to the JP-8 base fuel was also studied. The results indicated that there is a significant increase of NOx resulting from the CAA addition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit
StatePublished - Dec 1 2003
Event39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2003 - Huntsville, AL, United States
Duration: Jul 20 2003Jul 23 2003

Publication series

Name39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit

Other

Other39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2003
CountryUnited States
CityHuntsville, AL
Period7/20/037/23/03

Fingerprint

Fuel additives
Soot
Combustors
Gas turbines
Fuel burners
Thermodynamic stability
Ethanol
Particulate emissions
Toluene
Volume fraction
Experiments
Hydrogen
Carbon
Lasers
Testing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Imschweiler, D., McKeand, M., Lee, S. Y., Saretto, S., Linevsky, M., Litzinger, T. A., & Santoro, R. J. (2003). Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor. In 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit).
Imschweiler, D. ; McKeand, M. ; Lee, S. Y. ; Saretto, S. ; Linevsky, M. ; Litzinger, T. A. ; Santoro, R. J. / Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor. 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. 2003. (39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit).
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title = "Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor",
abstract = "The use of fuel additives is a well-established method for reducing particulate emissions produced in combustion systems. In the present study, the effects of organic fuel additives on soot emissions were investigated in a high-pressure model gas turbine dump combustor and an atmospheric turbulent spray burner using a laser extinction technique. The base fuel used in the current experiment was JP-8 which had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of approximately 0.48 determined directly by C-H analysis. Four additives were systematically investigated: the JP-8+100 thermal stability package (TSP), ethanol, diethyl maleate and an off-the-shelf commercially available additive consisting mainly of nitroalkanes, cyclohexanone, toluene, and dichloroethane (CAA). Measurements of the soot concentrations produced in the combustor at a location of 248 mm downstream from the dump plane indicated that the JP-8+100 thermal stability package, ethanol, and diethyl maleate did not lead to a measurable reduction of soot. In contrast, CAA showed a reduction of up to 30{\%} in soot volume fraction. In addition, as part of the current study, reductions in soot concentrations were also investigated using an atmospheric turbulent spray burner. This experiment focused on testing the major components of CAA in order to isolate those components which are most effective in reducing soot concentrations, and to verify the overall effectiveness of CAA on soot reduction. It was found for the atmospheric turbulent spray burner, that of the components tested, cyclohexanone showed the most potential as an additive. However, no single component was found to be exclusively responsible for the soot reductions. The effect of the CAA on the pollutant emission when added to the JP-8 base fuel was also studied. The results indicated that there is a significant increase of NOx resulting from the CAA addition.",
author = "D. Imschweiler and M. McKeand and Lee, {S. Y.} and S. Saretto and M. Linevsky and Litzinger, {T. A.} and Santoro, {R. J.}",
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Imschweiler, D, McKeand, M, Lee, SY, Saretto, S, Linevsky, M, Litzinger, TA & Santoro, RJ 2003, Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor. in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2003, Huntsville, AL, United States, 7/20/03.

Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor. / Imschweiler, D.; McKeand, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Saretto, S.; Linevsky, M.; Litzinger, T. A.; Santoro, R. J.

39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. 2003. (39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Imschweiler, D.

AU - McKeand, M.

AU - Lee, S. Y.

AU - Saretto, S.

AU - Linevsky, M.

AU - Litzinger, T. A.

AU - Santoro, R. J.

PY - 2003/12/1

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N2 - The use of fuel additives is a well-established method for reducing particulate emissions produced in combustion systems. In the present study, the effects of organic fuel additives on soot emissions were investigated in a high-pressure model gas turbine dump combustor and an atmospheric turbulent spray burner using a laser extinction technique. The base fuel used in the current experiment was JP-8 which had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of approximately 0.48 determined directly by C-H analysis. Four additives were systematically investigated: the JP-8+100 thermal stability package (TSP), ethanol, diethyl maleate and an off-the-shelf commercially available additive consisting mainly of nitroalkanes, cyclohexanone, toluene, and dichloroethane (CAA). Measurements of the soot concentrations produced in the combustor at a location of 248 mm downstream from the dump plane indicated that the JP-8+100 thermal stability package, ethanol, and diethyl maleate did not lead to a measurable reduction of soot. In contrast, CAA showed a reduction of up to 30% in soot volume fraction. In addition, as part of the current study, reductions in soot concentrations were also investigated using an atmospheric turbulent spray burner. This experiment focused on testing the major components of CAA in order to isolate those components which are most effective in reducing soot concentrations, and to verify the overall effectiveness of CAA on soot reduction. It was found for the atmospheric turbulent spray burner, that of the components tested, cyclohexanone showed the most potential as an additive. However, no single component was found to be exclusively responsible for the soot reductions. The effect of the CAA on the pollutant emission when added to the JP-8 base fuel was also studied. The results indicated that there is a significant increase of NOx resulting from the CAA addition.

AB - The use of fuel additives is a well-established method for reducing particulate emissions produced in combustion systems. In the present study, the effects of organic fuel additives on soot emissions were investigated in a high-pressure model gas turbine dump combustor and an atmospheric turbulent spray burner using a laser extinction technique. The base fuel used in the current experiment was JP-8 which had a carbon to hydrogen ratio of approximately 0.48 determined directly by C-H analysis. Four additives were systematically investigated: the JP-8+100 thermal stability package (TSP), ethanol, diethyl maleate and an off-the-shelf commercially available additive consisting mainly of nitroalkanes, cyclohexanone, toluene, and dichloroethane (CAA). Measurements of the soot concentrations produced in the combustor at a location of 248 mm downstream from the dump plane indicated that the JP-8+100 thermal stability package, ethanol, and diethyl maleate did not lead to a measurable reduction of soot. In contrast, CAA showed a reduction of up to 30% in soot volume fraction. In addition, as part of the current study, reductions in soot concentrations were also investigated using an atmospheric turbulent spray burner. This experiment focused on testing the major components of CAA in order to isolate those components which are most effective in reducing soot concentrations, and to verify the overall effectiveness of CAA on soot reduction. It was found for the atmospheric turbulent spray burner, that of the components tested, cyclohexanone showed the most potential as an additive. However, no single component was found to be exclusively responsible for the soot reductions. The effect of the CAA on the pollutant emission when added to the JP-8 base fuel was also studied. The results indicated that there is a significant increase of NOx resulting from the CAA addition.

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M3 - Conference contribution

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Imschweiler D, McKeand M, Lee SY, Saretto S, Linevsky M, Litzinger TA et al. Fuel additive studies of soot reduction in a high-pressure model gas turbine combustor. In 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. 2003. (39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit).