This study critically examined the role of PPARβ/δ in colon cancer models. Expression of PPARβ/δ mRNA and protein was lower and expression of CYCLIN D1 protein higher in human colon adenocarcinomas compared to matched non-transformed tissue. Similar results were observed in colon tumors from Apc +/Min-FCCC mice compared to control tissue. Dietary administration of sulindac to Apc +/Min-FCCC mice had no influence on expression of PPARβ/δ in normal colon tissue or colon tumors. Cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was either increased or unchanged, while expression of 14-3-3ε was not influenced in human colon cancer cell lines cultured with the PPARβ/δ ligand GW0742 under conditions known to increase apoptosis. While DLD1 cells exhibited fewer early apoptotic cells after ligand activation of PPARβ/δ following treatment with hydrogen peroxide, this change was associated with an increase in late apoptotic/necrotic cells, but not an increase in viable cells. Stable over-expression of PPARβ/δ in human colon cancer cell lines enhanced ligand activation of PPARβ/δ and inhibition of clonogenicity in HT29 cells. These studies are the most quantitative to date to demonstrate that expression of PPARβ/δ is lower in human and Apc +/Min-FCCC mouse colon tumors than in corresponding normal tissue, consistent with the finding that increasing expression and activation of PPARβ/δ in human colon cancer cell lines inhibits clonogenicity. Because ligand-induced attenuation of early apoptosis can be associated with more late, apoptotic/necrotic cells, but not more viable cells, these studies illustrate why more comprehensive analysis of PPARβ/δ-dependent modulation of apoptosis is required in the future.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research