Failure of turbine blades generally results from high-temperature oxidation, corrosion, erosion, or combinations of these procedures at the tip, and the leading and trailing edges of a turbine blade. To overcome these limitations, functionally gradient ceramic/metallic coatings have been produced by high-energy beams for high-temperature applications in the aerospace and turbine industries to increase the life of turbine components. Thermal spray processes have long been used to apply high-temperature thermal barrier coatings to improve the life of turbine components. However, these processes have not met the increased demand by the aerospace and turbine industries to obtain higher engine temperatures and increased life enhancement as a result of the inhomogeneous microstructure, unmelted particles, voids, and poor bonding with the substrate. High-energy beams, i.e. electron beam-physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD), laser glazing, laser surface alloying, and laser surface cladding, have been explored to enhance the life of turbine components and overcome the limitations of the thermal spray processes. EB-PVD has overcome some of the disadvantages of the thermal spray processes and has increased the life of turbine components by a factor of two as a result of the columnar microstructure in the thermal barrier coating (TBC). Laser glazing has been used to produce metastable phases, amorphous material, and a fine-grained microstructure, resulting in improved surface properties such as fatigue, wear, and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures without changing the composition of the surface material. Laser surface alloying and laser surface cladding have shown promising results in improving the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the substrate's surface. Metal-matrix composite coatings have also been produced by a laser technique which resulted in increased wear- and oxidation-resistant properties. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal spray processes, EB-PVD, laser glazing, laser surface alloying, and laser surface cladding will be discussed. Microstructural evolution of thermal barrier coatings, recent advancements in functionally gradient coatings, laser grooving, and multilayered textured coatings will also be discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering