The protein encoded by growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible transcript 34 (Gadd34) is associated with translation initiation regulation following certain stress responses. Through interaction with the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c), Gadd34 recruits PP1c for the removal of an inhibitory phosphate group on the α subunit of elongation initiation factor 2, thereby reversing the shutoff of protein synthesis initiated by stress-inducible kinases. In the absence of stress, the physiologic consequences of Gadd34 function are not known. Initial analysis of Gadd34-null mice revealed several significant findings, including hypersplenism, decreased erythrocyte volume, increased numbers of circulating erythrocytes, and decreased hemoglobin content, resembling some thalassemia syndromes. Biochemical analysis of the hemoglobin-producing reticulocyte (an erythrocyte precursor) revealed that the decreased hemoglobin content in the Gadd34-null erythrocyte is due to the reduced initiation of the globin translation machinery. We propose that an equilibrium state exists between Gadd34/PP1c and the opposing heme-regulated inhibitor kinase during hemoglobin synthesis in the reticulocyte.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology