Gambogic acid covalently modifies IκB kinase-β subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB in macrophages

Umamaheshwari D. Palempall, Ujjawal Gandhi, Parisa Kalantari, Hema Vunta, Ryan J. Arner, Vivek Narayan, Anand Ravindran, Kumble Sandeep Prabhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the antitumour activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of TfR1 (transferrin receptor-1). Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-κB-luciferase reporter and gel-shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-κB induced by LPS, whereas 9,10-dihydro-GA, which lacks the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. In vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKβ [IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase-β], a key kinase of the NF-κB signalling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys-179, causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-409
Number of pages9
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume419
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2009

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Macrophages
Lipopolysaccharides
Phosphotransferases
Chemical activation
Transferrin Receptors
Garcinia
Complementary Therapies
gambogic acid
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Genes
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
RNA Interference
Luciferases
Proteomics
Medicine
Ligation
Assays
Resins
Western Blotting
Gels

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Palempall, Umamaheshwari D. ; Gandhi, Ujjawal ; Kalantari, Parisa ; Vunta, Hema ; Arner, Ryan J. ; Narayan, Vivek ; Ravindran, Anand ; Prabhu, Kumble Sandeep. / Gambogic acid covalently modifies IκB kinase-β subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB in macrophages. In: Biochemical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 419, No. 2. pp. 401-409.
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abstract = "GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the antitumour activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of TfR1 (transferrin receptor-1). Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-κB-luciferase reporter and gel-shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-κB induced by LPS, whereas 9,10-dihydro-GA, which lacks the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. In vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKβ [IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase-β], a key kinase of the NF-κB signalling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys-179, causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA.",
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Gambogic acid covalently modifies IκB kinase-β subunit to mediate suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB in macrophages. / Palempall, Umamaheshwari D.; Gandhi, Ujjawal; Kalantari, Parisa; Vunta, Hema; Arner, Ryan J.; Narayan, Vivek; Ravindran, Anand; Prabhu, Kumble Sandeep.

In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 419, No. 2, 15.04.2009, p. 401-409.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Palempall, Umamaheshwari D.

AU - Gandhi, Ujjawal

AU - Kalantari, Parisa

AU - Vunta, Hema

AU - Arner, Ryan J.

AU - Narayan, Vivek

AU - Ravindran, Anand

AU - Prabhu, Kumble Sandeep

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N2 - GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the antitumour activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of TfR1 (transferrin receptor-1). Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-κB-luciferase reporter and gel-shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-κB induced by LPS, whereas 9,10-dihydro-GA, which lacks the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. In vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKβ [IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase-β], a key kinase of the NF-κB signalling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys-179, causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA.

AB - GA (gambogic acid) is a polyprenylated xanthone abundant in the resin of Garcinia morella and Garcinia hanburyi with a long history of use as a complementary and alternative medicine. The antitumour activity of GA has been well demonstrated and is thought to arise partly from the associated anti-inflammatory activity. Recent studies have indicated that the antitumour activity of GA is mediated by its ligation of TfR1 (transferrin receptor-1). Since the cellular expression of TfR1 is down-regulated by LPS (lipopolysaccharide), we hypothesized that an alternative pathway exists in immune cells, such as macrophages, where GA could mitigate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Here we demonstrate that GA inhibits the LPS-dependent expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) target pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Western immunoblot, NF-κB-luciferase reporter and gel-shift analyses revealed that GA strongly blocked the activation of NF-κB induced by LPS, whereas 9,10-dihydro-GA, which lacks the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group, was ineffective. Moreover, GA was able to decrease nuclear p65 levels in RAW264.7 macrophages, where the expression of TfR1 was down-regulated by RNA interference. In vitro kinase assays coupled with interaction studies using biotinylated GA as well as proteomic analysis demonstrated that IKKβ [IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase-β], a key kinase of the NF-κB signalling axis, was covalently modified by GA at Cys-179, causing significant inhibition of its kinase activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potent anti-inflammatory activity of GA.

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