We discuss the X-ray flux of gamma-ray burst afterglows at redshifts in the range 3-30, including the effects of the intergalactic He II absorption. We point out that strong X-ray lines may form locally in burst afterglows starting minutes after the trigger. This can provide distinctive X-ray distance indicators out to the redshifts at which the first generation of massive stars form.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science