In the Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron system or when flat bands are present, e.g., in twisted van der Waals bilayers, strong electron-electron interaction gives rise to quantum Hall ferromagnetism with spontaneously broken symmetries in the spin and isospin sectors. Quantum Hall ferromagnets support a rich variety of low-energy collective excitations that are instrumental to understand the nature of the magnetic ground states and are also potentially useful as carriers of quantum information. Probing such collective excitations, especially their dispersion ω(k), is experimentally challenging due to small sample size and measurement constraints. In this work, we demonstrate an all-electrical approach that integrates a Fabry-Pérot cavity with nonequilibrium transport to achieve the excitation, wave vector selection, and detection of spin waves in graphene heterostructures. Our experiments reveal gapless, linearly dispersed spin wave excitations in the E=0 Landau level of bilayer graphene, thus providing direct experimental evidence for a predicted canted antiferromagnetic order. We show that the gapless spin wave mode propagates with a high group velocity of several tens of kilometers per second and maintains phase coherence over a distance of many micrometers. Its dependence on the magnetic field and temperature agree well with the hydrodynamic theory of spin waves. These results lay the foundation for the quest of spin superfluidity in this high-quality material. The resonant cavity technique we develop offers a powerful and timely method to explore the collective excitation of many spin- and isospin-ordered many-body ground states in van der Waals heterostructures and opens the possibility of engineering magnonic devices.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)