GCN2 regulates the CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta and hepatic gluconeogenesis

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Abstract

Mice deficient for general control nondepressible-2 (Gcn2) either globally or specifically in the liver display reduced capacity to maintain glucose homeostasis during fasting, suggesting the hypothesis that GCN2 may regulate gluconeogenesis (GNG), which normally plays a key role maintaining peripheral glucose homeostasis. Gcn2-deficient mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin but show reduced GNG when administered pyruvate, a gluconeogenic substrate. The basal expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in GNG, is abnormally elevated in Gcn2 knockout (KO) mice in the fed state but fails to be further induced during fasting. The level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including malate and oxaloacetate, and the NADH-to-NAD+ ratio are perturbed in the liver of Gcn2 KO mice either in the fed or fasted state, which may directly impinge upon GNG. Additionally, the expression of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) in the liver fails to be induced in Gcn2 KO mice after 24 h fasting, and the liver-specific Cebpβ KO mice show reduced fasting GNG similar to that seen in Gcn2-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates that GCN2 is important in maintaining GNG in the liver, which is likely to be mediated through regulation of C/EBPβ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume305
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2013

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CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta
Gluconeogenesis
Knockout Mice
Liver
Fasting
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
NAD
Homeostasis
Glucose
Oxaloacetic Acid
Phosphoenolpyruvate
Citric Acid Cycle
Pyruvic Acid
Insulin Resistance
Insulin
Enzymes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "GCN2 regulates the CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta and hepatic gluconeogenesis",
abstract = "Mice deficient for general control nondepressible-2 (Gcn2) either globally or specifically in the liver display reduced capacity to maintain glucose homeostasis during fasting, suggesting the hypothesis that GCN2 may regulate gluconeogenesis (GNG), which normally plays a key role maintaining peripheral glucose homeostasis. Gcn2-deficient mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin but show reduced GNG when administered pyruvate, a gluconeogenic substrate. The basal expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in GNG, is abnormally elevated in Gcn2 knockout (KO) mice in the fed state but fails to be further induced during fasting. The level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including malate and oxaloacetate, and the NADH-to-NAD+ ratio are perturbed in the liver of Gcn2 KO mice either in the fed or fasted state, which may directly impinge upon GNG. Additionally, the expression of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) in the liver fails to be induced in Gcn2 KO mice after 24 h fasting, and the liver-specific Cebpβ KO mice show reduced fasting GNG similar to that seen in Gcn2-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates that GCN2 is important in maintaining GNG in the liver, which is likely to be mediated through regulation of C/EBPβ.",
author = "Xu Xu and Jingjie Hu and McGrath, {Barbara Claire} and Cavener, {Douglas R.}",
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AU - Xu, Xu

AU - Hu, Jingjie

AU - McGrath, Barbara Claire

AU - Cavener, Douglas R.

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N2 - Mice deficient for general control nondepressible-2 (Gcn2) either globally or specifically in the liver display reduced capacity to maintain glucose homeostasis during fasting, suggesting the hypothesis that GCN2 may regulate gluconeogenesis (GNG), which normally plays a key role maintaining peripheral glucose homeostasis. Gcn2-deficient mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin but show reduced GNG when administered pyruvate, a gluconeogenic substrate. The basal expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in GNG, is abnormally elevated in Gcn2 knockout (KO) mice in the fed state but fails to be further induced during fasting. The level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including malate and oxaloacetate, and the NADH-to-NAD+ ratio are perturbed in the liver of Gcn2 KO mice either in the fed or fasted state, which may directly impinge upon GNG. Additionally, the expression of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) in the liver fails to be induced in Gcn2 KO mice after 24 h fasting, and the liver-specific Cebpβ KO mice show reduced fasting GNG similar to that seen in Gcn2-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates that GCN2 is important in maintaining GNG in the liver, which is likely to be mediated through regulation of C/EBPβ.

AB - Mice deficient for general control nondepressible-2 (Gcn2) either globally or specifically in the liver display reduced capacity to maintain glucose homeostasis during fasting, suggesting the hypothesis that GCN2 may regulate gluconeogenesis (GNG), which normally plays a key role maintaining peripheral glucose homeostasis. Gcn2-deficient mice exhibit normal insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin but show reduced GNG when administered pyruvate, a gluconeogenic substrate. The basal expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in GNG, is abnormally elevated in Gcn2 knockout (KO) mice in the fed state but fails to be further induced during fasting. The level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, including malate and oxaloacetate, and the NADH-to-NAD+ ratio are perturbed in the liver of Gcn2 KO mice either in the fed or fasted state, which may directly impinge upon GNG. Additionally, the expression of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) in the liver fails to be induced in Gcn2 KO mice after 24 h fasting, and the liver-specific Cebpβ KO mice show reduced fasting GNG similar to that seen in Gcn2-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates that GCN2 is important in maintaining GNG in the liver, which is likely to be mediated through regulation of C/EBPβ.

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