Li-alloy-based anode materials are very promising for breaking current energy limits of lithium-ion battery technologies. Unfortunately, these materials still suffer from poor solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) stability, resulting in unsatisfied electrochemical performances. The typical SEI formation method, electrochemical decomposition of electrolytes onto the active material surface, lacks a deliberate control of the SEI functions and structures. Here we propose a general method of manipulating the formation process, chemical composition, and morphology of the SEI for Li-alloy anodes, using Si and Ge nanoparticle anodes as the platform. The SEI was fabricated through a covalent anchoring of multiple functional components onto the active material surface, followed by electrochemical decomposition of the functional components and conventional electrolyte. Click reaction, serving as the covalent anchoring approach, allows an accurate control of the SEI composition and structure at the molecular level through tuning the chemical structure and amount of variety of functional components and provides an intimate contact between the SEI and the Li-alloy material surface contributed by the covalent bonding. The optimized Si nanoparticle SEI, functionalized by a unique combination of diverse components and containing a high concentration of organic components attributed to the preanchored functional components, presented a stable composition and durable morphology during cycling and led to an improved first cycle efficiency of Si nanoparticle anodes and its long cycle life in a full cell. This general method displays potential benefits to construct stable SEIs for other Li-alloy anodes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry