Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of cis Regulatory Elements within the Keratinocyte Enhancer Region of the Human Papillomavirus Type 31 Upstream Regulatory Region during Different Stages of the Viral Life Cycle

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Abstract

Using linker scanning mutational analysis, we recently identified potential cis regulatory elements contained within the 5′ upstream regulatory region (URR) domain and auxiliary enhancer (AE) region of the human papillomavirus type 31 (HPV31) URR involved in the regulation of E6/E7 promoter activity at different stages of the viral life cycle. For the present study, we extended the linker scanning mutational analysis to identify potential cis elements located in the keratinocyte enhancer (KE) region (nucleotides 7511 to 7762) of the HPV31 URR and to characterize cellular factors that bind to these elements under conditions representing different stages of the viral life cycle. The linker scanning mutational analysis identified viral cis elements located in the KE region that regulate transcription in the presence and absence of any viral gene products or viral DNA replication and determine the role of host tissue differentiation on viral transcriptional regulation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we illustrated defined reorganization in the composition of cellular transcription factors binding to the same cis regulatory elements at different stages of the HPV differentiation-dependent life cycle. Our studies provide an extensive map of functional elements in the KE region of the HPV31 URR, identify cis regulatory elements that exhibit significant transcription regulatory potential, and illustrate changes in specific protein-DNA interactions at different stages of the viral life cycle. The variable recruitment of transcription factors to the same cis element under different cellular conditions may represent a mechanism underlying the tight link between keratinocyte differentiation and E6/E7 expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)612-629
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of virology
Volume78
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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