Genetic and environmental influences on being expelled and suspended from school

Kevin M. Beaver, Joseph A. Schwartz, J. C. Barnes, Joseph L. Nedelec, John P. Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, Eric J. Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


There has been a significant amount of interest in understanding some of the key issues related to school suspensions and expulsions. One of the more intriguing and studied of these issues has to do with factors that contribute to variation in school disciplinary sanctions. To date, however, no research has examined the genetic architecture to either suspensions or expulsions. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by analyzing a sample of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the analyses revealed that shared and nonshared environmental factors accounted for the variation in suspensions. Genetic influences, in contrast, were the dominant source of variation for expulsions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings and avenues for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-218
Number of pages5
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Beaver, K. M., Schwartz, J. A., Barnes, J. C., Nedelec, J. L., Wright, J. P., Boutwell, B. B., & Connolly, E. J. (2016). Genetic and environmental influences on being expelled and suspended from school. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 214-218.