Phage typing has been used for the epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis for over 2 decades. However, knowledge of the genetic and evolutionary relationships between phage types is very limited, making differences difficult to interpret. Here, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from whole-genome comparisons were used to determine the relationships between some S. Enteritidis phage types (PTs) commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in the United States. Emphasis was placed on the predominant phage types PT8, PT13a, and PT13 in North America. With>89,400 bp surveyed across 98 S. Enteritidis isolates representing 14 distinct phage types, 55 informative SNPs were discovered within 23 chromosomally anchored loci. To maximize the discriminatory and evolutionary partitioning of these highly homogeneous strains, sequences comprising informative SNPs were concatenated into a single combined data matrix and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The resultant phylogeny allocated most S. Enteritidis isolates into two distinct clades (clades I and II) and four subclades. Synapomorphic (shared and derived) sets of SNPs capable of distinguishing individual clades/subclades were identified. However, individual phage types appeared to be evolutionarily disjunct when mapped to this phylogeny, suggesting that phage typing may not be valid for making phylogenetic inferences. Furthermore, the set of SNPs identified here represents useful genetic markers for strain differentiation of more clonal S. Enteritidis strains and provides core genotypic markers for future development of a SNP typing scheme with S. Enteritidis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)