Genetics of HLA: the major human histocompatibility system

W. F. Bodmer, E. A. Jones, C. J. Barnstable, J. G. Bodmer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The HLA system was first defined as a cell surface genetic polymorphism with the aim of using it for transplantation matching. The originally defined specificities of the system, usually identified by a microcytotoxicity assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes, are controlled by the alleles of three closely linked loci HLA-A, B and C. These loci are highly polymorphic with at least 19 A alleles, 26 B alleles and 5 C alleles defined. There is extensive cross reaction amongst the determinants controlled by each locus, though not usually between loci. Skin or kidney grafts exchanged between HLA-A, B and C identical sibs survive much longer than those between unmatched sibs showing that the HLA system is indeed a histocompatibility system. The mixed lymphocyte culture reaction has been shown to be controlled by a series of alleles at a fourth locus, closely linked to A, B and C, the HLA-D locus. Eight alleles have been identified at this locus by use of the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction as a typing procedure. The H-2 system is the mouse equivalent of HLA. The HLA system, and other similar systems in other species, are remarkable examples of complex gene clusters containing several hundreds, and possibly even a few thousand, gene loci. Such gene clusters of which other well known examples are the haemoglobin and immunoglobulin genes, seem to be a characteristic feature of higher organism genetic organization. It is commonly assumed that such clusters have arisen by a series of duplication events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-116
Number of pages24
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences
Volume202
Issue number1146
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1978

Fingerprint

Histocompatibility
Lymphocytes
allele
Genes
Alleles
loci
HLA-A Antigens
alleles
Cell culture
HLA-C Antigens
Mixed Lymphocyte Culture Test
HLA-B Antigens
gene
HLA-D Antigens
Multigene Family
lymphocytes
Polymorphism
multigene family
Grafts
Immunoglobulins

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

@article{e3ac3cb92b534a41b804f0615759ca40,
title = "Genetics of HLA: the major human histocompatibility system",
abstract = "The HLA system was first defined as a cell surface genetic polymorphism with the aim of using it for transplantation matching. The originally defined specificities of the system, usually identified by a microcytotoxicity assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes, are controlled by the alleles of three closely linked loci HLA-A, B and C. These loci are highly polymorphic with at least 19 A alleles, 26 B alleles and 5 C alleles defined. There is extensive cross reaction amongst the determinants controlled by each locus, though not usually between loci. Skin or kidney grafts exchanged between HLA-A, B and C identical sibs survive much longer than those between unmatched sibs showing that the HLA system is indeed a histocompatibility system. The mixed lymphocyte culture reaction has been shown to be controlled by a series of alleles at a fourth locus, closely linked to A, B and C, the HLA-D locus. Eight alleles have been identified at this locus by use of the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction as a typing procedure. The H-2 system is the mouse equivalent of HLA. The HLA system, and other similar systems in other species, are remarkable examples of complex gene clusters containing several hundreds, and possibly even a few thousand, gene loci. Such gene clusters of which other well known examples are the haemoglobin and immunoglobulin genes, seem to be a characteristic feature of higher organism genetic organization. It is commonly assumed that such clusters have arisen by a series of duplication events.",
author = "Bodmer, {W. F.} and Jones, {E. A.} and Barnstable, {C. J.} and Bodmer, {J. G.}",
year = "1978",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1098/rspb.1978.0059",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "202",
pages = "93--116",
journal = "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences",
issn = "0962-8452",
publisher = "Royal Society of London",
number = "1146",

}

Genetics of HLA : the major human histocompatibility system. / Bodmer, W. F.; Jones, E. A.; Barnstable, C. J.; Bodmer, J. G.

In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences, Vol. 202, No. 1146, 01.01.1978, p. 93-116.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetics of HLA

T2 - the major human histocompatibility system

AU - Bodmer, W. F.

AU - Jones, E. A.

AU - Barnstable, C. J.

AU - Bodmer, J. G.

PY - 1978/1/1

Y1 - 1978/1/1

N2 - The HLA system was first defined as a cell surface genetic polymorphism with the aim of using it for transplantation matching. The originally defined specificities of the system, usually identified by a microcytotoxicity assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes, are controlled by the alleles of three closely linked loci HLA-A, B and C. These loci are highly polymorphic with at least 19 A alleles, 26 B alleles and 5 C alleles defined. There is extensive cross reaction amongst the determinants controlled by each locus, though not usually between loci. Skin or kidney grafts exchanged between HLA-A, B and C identical sibs survive much longer than those between unmatched sibs showing that the HLA system is indeed a histocompatibility system. The mixed lymphocyte culture reaction has been shown to be controlled by a series of alleles at a fourth locus, closely linked to A, B and C, the HLA-D locus. Eight alleles have been identified at this locus by use of the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction as a typing procedure. The H-2 system is the mouse equivalent of HLA. The HLA system, and other similar systems in other species, are remarkable examples of complex gene clusters containing several hundreds, and possibly even a few thousand, gene loci. Such gene clusters of which other well known examples are the haemoglobin and immunoglobulin genes, seem to be a characteristic feature of higher organism genetic organization. It is commonly assumed that such clusters have arisen by a series of duplication events.

AB - The HLA system was first defined as a cell surface genetic polymorphism with the aim of using it for transplantation matching. The originally defined specificities of the system, usually identified by a microcytotoxicity assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes, are controlled by the alleles of three closely linked loci HLA-A, B and C. These loci are highly polymorphic with at least 19 A alleles, 26 B alleles and 5 C alleles defined. There is extensive cross reaction amongst the determinants controlled by each locus, though not usually between loci. Skin or kidney grafts exchanged between HLA-A, B and C identical sibs survive much longer than those between unmatched sibs showing that the HLA system is indeed a histocompatibility system. The mixed lymphocyte culture reaction has been shown to be controlled by a series of alleles at a fourth locus, closely linked to A, B and C, the HLA-D locus. Eight alleles have been identified at this locus by use of the mixed lymphocyte culture reaction as a typing procedure. The H-2 system is the mouse equivalent of HLA. The HLA system, and other similar systems in other species, are remarkable examples of complex gene clusters containing several hundreds, and possibly even a few thousand, gene loci. Such gene clusters of which other well known examples are the haemoglobin and immunoglobulin genes, seem to be a characteristic feature of higher organism genetic organization. It is commonly assumed that such clusters have arisen by a series of duplication events.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018103903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018103903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1098/rspb.1978.0059

DO - 10.1098/rspb.1978.0059

M3 - Review article

C2 - 27817

AN - SCOPUS:0018103903

VL - 202

SP - 93

EP - 116

JO - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

SN - 0962-8452

IS - 1146

ER -