Macrophages play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis, from regulating the inflammatory response to pathogens to resolving inflammation and aiding tissue repair. The surfactant protein A (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 (MYO18A) has been shown to affect basal and inflammatory macrophage states. Specifically, disruption of the longer splice isoform SP-R210L/MYO18Aα renders macrophages hyper-inflammatory, although the mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood. We asked whether disruption of the L isoform led to the hyper-inflammatory state via alteration of global genomic responses. RNA sequencing analysis of L isoform-deficient macrophages (SP-R210L(DN)) revealed basal and influenza-induced upregulation of genes associated with inflammatory pathways, such as TLR, RIG-I, NOD, and cytoplasmic DNA signaling, whereas knockout of both SP-R210 isoforms (L and S) only resulted in increased RIG-I and NOD signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis showed increased genome-wide deposition of the pioneer transcription factor PU.1 in SP-R210L(DN) cells, with increased representation around genes relevant to inflammatory pathways. Additional ChIP-seq analysis of histone H3 methylation marks showed decreases in both repressive H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks with a commensurate increase in transcriptionally active (H3K4me3) histone marks in the L isoform deficient macrophages. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, known to stimulate a wide array of anti-viral responses, caused a differential redistribution of PU.1 binding between proximal promoter and distal sites and decoupling from Toll-like receptor regulated gene promoters in SP-R210L(DN) cells. These finding suggest that the inflammatory differences seen in SP-R210L-deficient macrophages are a result of transcriptional differences that are mediated by epigenetic changes brought about by differential expression of the SP-R210 isoforms. This provides an avenue to explore how the signaling pathways downstream of the receptor and the ligands can modulate the macrophage inflammatory response.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy