Copper-gold-bismuth-tellurium mineralization in the Stanos area, Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece, occurs in the Proterozoic- to Silurian-aged Serbomacedonian Massif, which tectonically borders the Mesozoic Circum-Rhodope metamorphic belt to the west and crystalline rocks of the Rhodope Massif to the east. This area contains the Paliomylos, Chalkoma, and Karambogia prospects, which are spatially related to regional NW-SE trending shear zones and hosted by marble, amphibolite gneiss, metagabbro, and various muscovite-biotite-chlorite-actinolite-feldspar-quartz schists of the Silurian Vertiskos Unit. Metallic minerals occur as disseminated to massive aggregates along foliation planes and in boudinaged quartz veins. Iron-bearing sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrrhotite) formed prior to a copper-bearing stage that contains chalcopyrite along with galena, sphalerite, molybdenite, and various minerals in the system Bi-Cu-Pb-Au-Ag-Te. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures of primary aqueous liquid-vapor inclusions in stage I quartz veins range from 170.1°C to 349.6°C (peak at ~230°C), with salinities of 4.5 to 13.1wt.% NaCl equiv. Calculated isochores intersect P-T conditions associated with the upper greenschist facies caused by local overpressures during late-stage tectonic movement along the shear zone in the Eocene, which produced stretching and unroofing of rocks in the region. Values of δ34S for sulfides in the Stanos shear zone range from 2.42 to 10.19‰ and suggest a magmatic sulfur source with a partially reduced seawater contribution. For fluids in equilibrium with quartz, δ18O at 480°C varies from 5.76 to 9.21‰ but does not allow for a distinction between a metamorphic and a magmatic fluid.A 187Re-187Os isochron of 19.2±2.1Ma for pyrite in the Paliomylos prospect overlaps ages obtained previously from intrusive rocks spatially-related to the Skouries porphyry Cu-Au, the Asimotrypes Au, and the intrusion-related Palea Kavala Bi-Te-Pb-Sb±Au deposits in northern Greece, as well as alteration minerals in the carbonate-replacement Madem Lakkos Pb-Zn deposit. Ore-forming components of deposits in the Stanos area were likely derived from magmatic rocks at shallow depth that intruded an extensional shear environment at ~19Ma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Economic Geology