Global patterns of the use of shadow education: Student, family, and national influences

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13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the cross-national pattern of the use of shadow education by families in 64 nations and use improved statistical estimation methods. Focusing on fee-paying out-of-school classes, we find a continued, and likely an intensified pattern of the cross-national use of shadow education in the contemporary world. Approximately about one-third of all 15-year-old students from 64 countries/economies across the world use this form of shadow education. Students of higher socioeconomic status, females, and students in urban areas and general programs are more likely to use fee-paying services, while families and students turn to these services to address academic deficiencies in general. In addition, students from poorer countries more extensively rely on shadow education than students from wealthier countries after controlling for other variables. Students in South-Eastern and Eastern Asian countries are more likely to pursue shadow education than their counterparts in many other regions. Implications of these findings for theories of education and society as well as for educational policy in relation to shadow education are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationResearch in the Sociology of Education
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing Ltd.
Pages71-105
Number of pages35
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Publication series

NameResearch in the Sociology of Education
Volume20
ISSN (Print)1479-3539

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science

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    Byun, S. Y., Chung, H. J., & Baker, D. P. (2018). Global patterns of the use of shadow education: Student, family, and national influences. In Research in the Sociology of Education (pp. 71-105). (Research in the Sociology of Education; Vol. 20). Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-353920180000020004