Glucagon represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in rat liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase

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Abstract

The opposing actions of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism within the liver are essential mechanisms for maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within narrow limits. Less well studied are the counter-regulatory actions of glucagon on protein metabolism. In the present study, the effect of glucagon on amino acid-induced signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important controller of the mRNA binding step in translation initiation, was examined using the perfused rat liver as an experimental model. The results show that amino acids enhance signaling through mTOR resulting in phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1, the 70-kDa ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase, S6K1, and rpS6. In contrast, glucagon repressed both basal and amino acid-induced signaling through mTOR, as assessed by changes in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. The repression was associated with the activation of protein kinase A and enhanced phosphorylation of LKB1 and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of two S6K1 substrates, rpS6 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4B, was not repressed but instead was increased by glucagon treatment, regardless of the amino acid concentration. The latter finding could be explained by the glucagon-induced phosphorylation of the ERK1 and the 90-kDa rpS6 kinase p90rsk. Thus, glucagon represses phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 through the activation of a protein kinase A-LKB-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway, while simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation of other downstream effectors of mTOR through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1-p90 rsk signaling pathway. Amino acids also enhance AMPK phosphorylation, although to a lesser extent than glucagon and amino acids combined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54103-54109
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume279
Issue number52
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 24 2004

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Phosphorylation
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Sirolimus
Glucagon
Liver
Rats
Amino Acids
Chemical activation
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Metabolism
90-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E
70-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Eukaryotic Initiation Factors
Glucose
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Protein Kinases
Carrier Proteins
Theoretical Models
Phosphotransferases

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Glucagon represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in rat liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase",
abstract = "The opposing actions of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism within the liver are essential mechanisms for maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within narrow limits. Less well studied are the counter-regulatory actions of glucagon on protein metabolism. In the present study, the effect of glucagon on amino acid-induced signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important controller of the mRNA binding step in translation initiation, was examined using the perfused rat liver as an experimental model. The results show that amino acids enhance signaling through mTOR resulting in phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1, the 70-kDa ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase, S6K1, and rpS6. In contrast, glucagon repressed both basal and amino acid-induced signaling through mTOR, as assessed by changes in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. The repression was associated with the activation of protein kinase A and enhanced phosphorylation of LKB1 and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of two S6K1 substrates, rpS6 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4B, was not repressed but instead was increased by glucagon treatment, regardless of the amino acid concentration. The latter finding could be explained by the glucagon-induced phosphorylation of the ERK1 and the 90-kDa rpS6 kinase p90rsk. Thus, glucagon represses phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 through the activation of a protein kinase A-LKB-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway, while simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation of other downstream effectors of mTOR through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1-p90 rsk signaling pathway. Amino acids also enhance AMPK phosphorylation, although to a lesser extent than glucagon and amino acids combined.",
author = "Scot Kimball and Siegfried, {Brett A.} and Jefferson, {Leonard {"}Jim{"}}",
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T1 - Glucagon represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in rat liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase

AU - Kimball, Scot

AU - Siegfried, Brett A.

AU - Jefferson, Leonard "Jim"

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N2 - The opposing actions of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism within the liver are essential mechanisms for maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within narrow limits. Less well studied are the counter-regulatory actions of glucagon on protein metabolism. In the present study, the effect of glucagon on amino acid-induced signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important controller of the mRNA binding step in translation initiation, was examined using the perfused rat liver as an experimental model. The results show that amino acids enhance signaling through mTOR resulting in phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1, the 70-kDa ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase, S6K1, and rpS6. In contrast, glucagon repressed both basal and amino acid-induced signaling through mTOR, as assessed by changes in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. The repression was associated with the activation of protein kinase A and enhanced phosphorylation of LKB1 and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of two S6K1 substrates, rpS6 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4B, was not repressed but instead was increased by glucagon treatment, regardless of the amino acid concentration. The latter finding could be explained by the glucagon-induced phosphorylation of the ERK1 and the 90-kDa rpS6 kinase p90rsk. Thus, glucagon represses phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 through the activation of a protein kinase A-LKB-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway, while simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation of other downstream effectors of mTOR through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1-p90 rsk signaling pathway. Amino acids also enhance AMPK phosphorylation, although to a lesser extent than glucagon and amino acids combined.

AB - The opposing actions of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism within the liver are essential mechanisms for maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within narrow limits. Less well studied are the counter-regulatory actions of glucagon on protein metabolism. In the present study, the effect of glucagon on amino acid-induced signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important controller of the mRNA binding step in translation initiation, was examined using the perfused rat liver as an experimental model. The results show that amino acids enhance signaling through mTOR resulting in phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1, the 70-kDa ribosomal protein (rp)S6 kinase, S6K1, and rpS6. In contrast, glucagon repressed both basal and amino acid-induced signaling through mTOR, as assessed by changes in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. The repression was associated with the activation of protein kinase A and enhanced phosphorylation of LKB1 and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of two S6K1 substrates, rpS6 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4B, was not repressed but instead was increased by glucagon treatment, regardless of the amino acid concentration. The latter finding could be explained by the glucagon-induced phosphorylation of the ERK1 and the 90-kDa rpS6 kinase p90rsk. Thus, glucagon represses phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 through the activation of a protein kinase A-LKB-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway, while simultaneously enhancing phosphorylation of other downstream effectors of mTOR through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1-p90 rsk signaling pathway. Amino acids also enhance AMPK phosphorylation, although to a lesser extent than glucagon and amino acids combined.

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