Improvement in patient outcomes has become a significant consideration with our limited resources in the surgical setting. The implementation of enhanced recovery pathway protocols has resulted in significant benefits to both the patients and hospitals, such as shorter length of hospital stays, reduction in the rate of complications, and fewer hospital readmissions. An emerging component and a key element for the success of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols has been the concept of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT). GDT related to ERAS protocols attempts to minimize complications associated with fluid imbalance during surgery. We performed a literature search for articles that included the terms enhanced recovery and GDT. We evaluated methods for appropriate volume status assessment, such as heart rate, blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, central venous pressure, urine output, stroke volume, cardiac output, and their derivatives. Some invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive monitors of hemodynamic evaluation are now being used to assess volume status and predict fluid responsiveness and fluid need during various surgical procedures. Regardless of monitoring technique, it is important for the clinician to effectively plan and implement preoperative and intraoperative fluid goals. Excess crystalloid fluid should be avoided. In some low-risk patients undergoing low-risk surgery, a 'zero-balance' approach is encouraged. For the majority of patients undergoing major surgery, GDT is recommended. Optimal perioperative fluid management is an important component of the ERAS pathways and it can reduce postoperative complications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine