Growth differentiation factor-9 inhibits 3′5′-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa and theca cells

Noriko Yamamoto, Lane K. Christenson, Janette McAllister, Jerome F. Strauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, modulates the development and function of granulosa and theca cells. Targeted deletion of GDF-9 in the mouse revealed that GDF-9 was essential for the establishment of the thecal cell layer during early folliculogenesis. During later stages of follicular development, the roles of GDF-9 are less well understood, but it has been postulated that oocyte-derived GDF-9 may prevent premature luteinization of follicular cells, based on its ability to modulate steroidogenesis by rodent ovarian cells. In the rodent, GDF-9 is expressed solely by the oocyte from the early primary follicular stage through ovulation. Recent studies in the rhesus monkey demonstrated that granulosa cells express GDF-9, suggesting a broader role for this protein in ovarian function in primates. We examined the effect of recombinant GDF-9 on proliferating human granulosa and thecal cell steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage, and P450 aromatase. We also examined granulosa cell GDF-9 expression by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western analysis. GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated granulosa progesterone synthesis by approximately 40%, but did not affect basal progesterone production. Concordant with reduced steroid production, 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression was reduced approximately 40% in granulosa cells, as were expression of StAR mRNA and StAR promoter activity. Additionally, GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated expression of P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 aromatase. Human granulosa cells expressed GDF-9, as determined by RT-PCR and Western analysis. Treatment of human thecal cells with GDF-9 blocked forskolin-stimulated progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone synthesis. Thecal cells exhibited greater sensitivity to GDF-9, suggesting that this cell may be a primary target of GDF-9. Moreover, GDF-9 increased thecal cell numbers during culture, but had no effect on granulosa cell growth. Our findings implicate GDF-9 in the modulation of follicular steroidogenesis, especially theca cell function. Because GDF-9 mRNA and protein are detectable in granulosa-lutein cells after the LH surge, the concept of GDF-9 as a solely oocyte-derived luteinization inhibitor needs to be reevaluated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2849-2856
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume87
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 29 2002

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Growth Differentiation Factor 9
Theca Cells
Granulosa Cells
Adenosine Monophosphate
Cell growth
Luteinization
Oocytes
Progesterone
Aromatase
Rodentia

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

@article{e85b661dae874c4589389816fa08fa54,
title = "Growth differentiation factor-9 inhibits 3′5′-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa and theca cells",
abstract = "Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, modulates the development and function of granulosa and theca cells. Targeted deletion of GDF-9 in the mouse revealed that GDF-9 was essential for the establishment of the thecal cell layer during early folliculogenesis. During later stages of follicular development, the roles of GDF-9 are less well understood, but it has been postulated that oocyte-derived GDF-9 may prevent premature luteinization of follicular cells, based on its ability to modulate steroidogenesis by rodent ovarian cells. In the rodent, GDF-9 is expressed solely by the oocyte from the early primary follicular stage through ovulation. Recent studies in the rhesus monkey demonstrated that granulosa cells express GDF-9, suggesting a broader role for this protein in ovarian function in primates. We examined the effect of recombinant GDF-9 on proliferating human granulosa and thecal cell steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage, and P450 aromatase. We also examined granulosa cell GDF-9 expression by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western analysis. GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated granulosa progesterone synthesis by approximately 40{\%}, but did not affect basal progesterone production. Concordant with reduced steroid production, 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression was reduced approximately 40{\%} in granulosa cells, as were expression of StAR mRNA and StAR promoter activity. Additionally, GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated expression of P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 aromatase. Human granulosa cells expressed GDF-9, as determined by RT-PCR and Western analysis. Treatment of human thecal cells with GDF-9 blocked forskolin-stimulated progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone synthesis. Thecal cells exhibited greater sensitivity to GDF-9, suggesting that this cell may be a primary target of GDF-9. Moreover, GDF-9 increased thecal cell numbers during culture, but had no effect on granulosa cell growth. Our findings implicate GDF-9 in the modulation of follicular steroidogenesis, especially theca cell function. Because GDF-9 mRNA and protein are detectable in granulosa-lutein cells after the LH surge, the concept of GDF-9 as a solely oocyte-derived luteinization inhibitor needs to be reevaluated.",
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Growth differentiation factor-9 inhibits 3′5′-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa and theca cells. / Yamamoto, Noriko; Christenson, Lane K.; McAllister, Janette; Strauss, Jerome F.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 87, No. 6, 29.06.2002, p. 2849-2856.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Growth differentiation factor-9 inhibits 3′5′-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa and theca cells

AU - Yamamoto, Noriko

AU - Christenson, Lane K.

AU - McAllister, Janette

AU - Strauss, Jerome F.

PY - 2002/6/29

Y1 - 2002/6/29

N2 - Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, modulates the development and function of granulosa and theca cells. Targeted deletion of GDF-9 in the mouse revealed that GDF-9 was essential for the establishment of the thecal cell layer during early folliculogenesis. During later stages of follicular development, the roles of GDF-9 are less well understood, but it has been postulated that oocyte-derived GDF-9 may prevent premature luteinization of follicular cells, based on its ability to modulate steroidogenesis by rodent ovarian cells. In the rodent, GDF-9 is expressed solely by the oocyte from the early primary follicular stage through ovulation. Recent studies in the rhesus monkey demonstrated that granulosa cells express GDF-9, suggesting a broader role for this protein in ovarian function in primates. We examined the effect of recombinant GDF-9 on proliferating human granulosa and thecal cell steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage, and P450 aromatase. We also examined granulosa cell GDF-9 expression by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western analysis. GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated granulosa progesterone synthesis by approximately 40%, but did not affect basal progesterone production. Concordant with reduced steroid production, 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression was reduced approximately 40% in granulosa cells, as were expression of StAR mRNA and StAR promoter activity. Additionally, GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated expression of P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 aromatase. Human granulosa cells expressed GDF-9, as determined by RT-PCR and Western analysis. Treatment of human thecal cells with GDF-9 blocked forskolin-stimulated progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone synthesis. Thecal cells exhibited greater sensitivity to GDF-9, suggesting that this cell may be a primary target of GDF-9. Moreover, GDF-9 increased thecal cell numbers during culture, but had no effect on granulosa cell growth. Our findings implicate GDF-9 in the modulation of follicular steroidogenesis, especially theca cell function. Because GDF-9 mRNA and protein are detectable in granulosa-lutein cells after the LH surge, the concept of GDF-9 as a solely oocyte-derived luteinization inhibitor needs to be reevaluated.

AB - Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, modulates the development and function of granulosa and theca cells. Targeted deletion of GDF-9 in the mouse revealed that GDF-9 was essential for the establishment of the thecal cell layer during early folliculogenesis. During later stages of follicular development, the roles of GDF-9 are less well understood, but it has been postulated that oocyte-derived GDF-9 may prevent premature luteinization of follicular cells, based on its ability to modulate steroidogenesis by rodent ovarian cells. In the rodent, GDF-9 is expressed solely by the oocyte from the early primary follicular stage through ovulation. Recent studies in the rhesus monkey demonstrated that granulosa cells express GDF-9, suggesting a broader role for this protein in ovarian function in primates. We examined the effect of recombinant GDF-9 on proliferating human granulosa and thecal cell steroidogenesis and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage, and P450 aromatase. We also examined granulosa cell GDF-9 expression by quantitative RT-PCR and by Western analysis. GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated granulosa progesterone synthesis by approximately 40%, but did not affect basal progesterone production. Concordant with reduced steroid production, 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression was reduced approximately 40% in granulosa cells, as were expression of StAR mRNA and StAR promoter activity. Additionally, GDF-9 inhibited 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated expression of P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 aromatase. Human granulosa cells expressed GDF-9, as determined by RT-PCR and Western analysis. Treatment of human thecal cells with GDF-9 blocked forskolin-stimulated progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone synthesis. Thecal cells exhibited greater sensitivity to GDF-9, suggesting that this cell may be a primary target of GDF-9. Moreover, GDF-9 increased thecal cell numbers during culture, but had no effect on granulosa cell growth. Our findings implicate GDF-9 in the modulation of follicular steroidogenesis, especially theca cell function. Because GDF-9 mRNA and protein are detectable in granulosa-lutein cells after the LH surge, the concept of GDF-9 as a solely oocyte-derived luteinization inhibitor needs to be reevaluated.

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