Heat transfer and fluid flow during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel

X. He, P. W. Fuerschbach, T. DebRoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

264 Scopus citations


The evolution of temperature and velocity fields during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel was studied using a transient, heart transfer and fluid flow model based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in the weld pool. The weld pool geometry, weld thermal cycles and various solidification parameters were calculated. The fusion zone geometry, calculated from the transient heat transfer and fluid flow model, was in good agreement with the corresponding experimentally measured values for various welding conditions. Dimensional analysis was used to understand the importance of heat transfer by conduction and convection and the roles of various driving forces for convection in the weld pool. During solidification, the mushy zone grew at a rapid rate and the maximum size of the mushy zone was reached when the pure liquid region vanished. The solidification rate of the mushy zone/liquid interface was shown to increase while the temperature gradient in the liquid zone at this interface decreased as solidification of the weld pool progressed. The heating and cooling rates, temperature gradient and the solidification rate at the mushy zone/liquid interface for laser spot welding were much higher than those for the moving and spot gas tungsten arc welding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1388-1398
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 21 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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