There are limited data on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL), an aggressive plasma cell disorder. We report outcomes of 147 patients with pPCL receiving autologous (n97) or allogeneic (n50) HCT within 18 months after diagnosis between 1995 and 2006. Median age was 56 years and 48 years for autologous HCT and allogeneic HCT, respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years was 34% (95% confidence interval (CI), 23-46%) in the autologous group and 20% (95% CI, 10-34%) in the allogeneic group. Cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 61% (95% CI, 48-72%) in the autologous group and 38% (95% CI, 25-53%) in the allogeneic group. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 64% (95% CI, 52-75%) in the autologous group and 39% (95% CI, 26-54%) in the allogeneic group. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 3 years was 5% (95% CI, 1-11%) in the autologous group and 41% (95% CI, 28-56%) in the allogeneic group. The encouraging OS after autologous HCT, establishes the safety and feasibility of this consolidative treatment option after initial induction therapy for pPCL. Allogeneic HCT, although associated with a significantly lower relapse rate, carries a much higher risk of NRM and no OS benefit.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research