Herbicidal effects under field conditions of Ailanthus altissima bark extract, which contains ailanthone

Rod Martin Heisey, Teresa Kish Heisey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Extracts of Ailanthus altissima stem bark were evaluated for herbicidal effects under field conditions in two outdoor trials. Previous investigations had shown A. altissima bark, extracted with methanol, yielded a strongly phytotoxic extract that contained ailanthone as one of the major herbicidal compounds. The first field trial investigated the level of activity and selectivity of the extract. A. altissima bark extract was sprayed post-emergence onto 17 species of weeds and crops at rates of 366, 177, 93, 47, 23, and 0 kg ha-1. These application rates provided herbicidal activity equivalent to 4.5, 2.2, 1.1, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.0 kg of pure ailanthone per hectare, based on the results of a laboratory bioassay of extract and pure ailanthone. Strong herbicidal effects were observed within several days. Even the lowest rate caused mortality and injury in excess of 50% for nine of the 17 species, and a significant reduction in shoot biomass for 13 species. The second field trial tested the ability of bark extract to control weeds under field conditions with horticultural crops (bush bean, cauliflower, sweet corn, tomato). A. altissima bark extract was sprayed post-emergence at rates of 99, 50, 26, 13, and 0 kg ha-1, providing herbicidal activity equivalent to 1.1, 0.6, 0.3, 0.14, and 0.0 kg of pure ailanthone per hectare. Extract treatment provided partial weed control (greatest reduction in weed biomass was 40%), but also caused serious crop injury. Bush bean was the only crop that showed a significant increase in shoot biomass and fruit yield, compared to the non-weeded control. None of the crops, regardless of application rate, showed a level of shoot biomass or fruit yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The herbicidal effects of A. altissima bark extract declined within the first few weeks after application, supporting previous evidence that ailanthone is rapidly degraded under field conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-99
Number of pages15
JournalPlant and Soil
Volume256
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2003

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Ailanthus altissima
bark
extracts
crop
shoot
weed control
biomass
weed
fruit
green beans
crops
fruit yield
application rate
shoots
field experimentation
weeds
methanol
effect
bioassay
sweetcorn

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Heisey, Rod Martin ; Heisey, Teresa Kish. / Herbicidal effects under field conditions of Ailanthus altissima bark extract, which contains ailanthone. In: Plant and Soil. 2003 ; Vol. 256, No. 1. pp. 85-99.
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abstract = "Extracts of Ailanthus altissima stem bark were evaluated for herbicidal effects under field conditions in two outdoor trials. Previous investigations had shown A. altissima bark, extracted with methanol, yielded a strongly phytotoxic extract that contained ailanthone as one of the major herbicidal compounds. The first field trial investigated the level of activity and selectivity of the extract. A. altissima bark extract was sprayed post-emergence onto 17 species of weeds and crops at rates of 366, 177, 93, 47, 23, and 0 kg ha-1. These application rates provided herbicidal activity equivalent to 4.5, 2.2, 1.1, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.0 kg of pure ailanthone per hectare, based on the results of a laboratory bioassay of extract and pure ailanthone. Strong herbicidal effects were observed within several days. Even the lowest rate caused mortality and injury in excess of 50{\%} for nine of the 17 species, and a significant reduction in shoot biomass for 13 species. The second field trial tested the ability of bark extract to control weeds under field conditions with horticultural crops (bush bean, cauliflower, sweet corn, tomato). A. altissima bark extract was sprayed post-emergence at rates of 99, 50, 26, 13, and 0 kg ha-1, providing herbicidal activity equivalent to 1.1, 0.6, 0.3, 0.14, and 0.0 kg of pure ailanthone per hectare. Extract treatment provided partial weed control (greatest reduction in weed biomass was 40{\%}), but also caused serious crop injury. Bush bean was the only crop that showed a significant increase in shoot biomass and fruit yield, compared to the non-weeded control. None of the crops, regardless of application rate, showed a level of shoot biomass or fruit yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The herbicidal effects of A. altissima bark extract declined within the first few weeks after application, supporting previous evidence that ailanthone is rapidly degraded under field conditions.",
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Herbicidal effects under field conditions of Ailanthus altissima bark extract, which contains ailanthone. / Heisey, Rod Martin; Heisey, Teresa Kish.

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 256, No. 1, 01.09.2003, p. 85-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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