Controlling spontaneous emission at optical scale lies in the heart of ultracompact quantum photonic devices, such as on-chip single photon sources, nanolasers and nanophotonic detectors. However, achiving a large modulation of fluorescence intensity and guiding the emitted photons into low-loss nanophotonic structures remain rather challenging issue. Here, using the liquid crystal-tuned gap surface plasmon, we theoretically demonstrate both a high-contrast switching of the spontaneous emission and high-efficiency extraction of the photons with a specially-designed tunable surface plasmon nanostructures. Through varying the refractive index of liquid crystal, the local electromagnetic field of the gap surface plasmon can be greatly modulated, thereby leading to the swithching of the spontaneous emission of the emitter placed at the nanoscale gap. By optimizing the material and geometrical parameters, the total decay rate can be changed from 103γ0 to 8750γ0, [γ0 is the spontaneous emission rate in vacuum] with the contrast ratio of 85. Further more, in the design also enables propagation of the emitted photons along the low-loss phase-matched nanofibers with a collection efficiency of more than 40%. The proposal provides a novel mechanism for simultaneously switching and extracting the spontaneous emitted photons in hybrid photonic nanostructures, propelling the implementation in on-chip tunable quantum devices.
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