High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition

M. Ambrosio, R. Antolini, G. Auriemma, R. Baker, A. Baldini, G. C. Barbarino, B. C. Barish, G. Battistoni, R. Bellotti, C. Bemporad, P. Bernardini, H. Bilokon, V. Bisi, C. Bloise, T. Bosio, C. Bower, S. Bussino, F. Cafagna, M. Calicchio, D. Campana & 98 others M. Carboni, M. Castellano, S. Cecchini, F. Cei, V. Chiarella, A. Corona, Stephane Coutu, G. De Cataldo, H. Dekhissi, C. De Marzo, I. De Mitri, M. De Vincenzi, A. Di Credico, O. Erriquez, R. Fantini, C. Favuzzi, C. Forti, P. Fusco, G. Giacomelli, G. Giannini, N. Giglietto, M. Goretti, M. Grassi, A. Grillo, F. Guarino, P. Guarnaccia, C. Gustavino, A. Habig, K. Hanson, A. Hawthorne, R. Heinz, J. T. Hong, E. Iarocci, E. Katsavounidis, E. Kearns, S. Kyriazopoulou, E. Lamanna, C. Lane, D. S. Levin, P. Lipari, N. P. Longley, M. J. Longo, G. Mancarella, G. Mandrioli, A. Margiotta-Neri, A. Marini, D. Martello, A. Marzari-Chiesa, M. N. Mazziotta, D. G. Michael, S. Mikheyev, L. Miller, P. Monacelli, T. Montaruli, M. Monteno, S. Mufson, J. Musser, D. Nicoló, R. Nolty, C. Okada, C. Orth, G. Osteria, O. Palamara, S. Parlati, V. Patera, L. Patrizii, R. Pazzi, C. W. Peck, S. Petrera, P. Pistilli, V. Popa, A. Rainó, J. Reynoldson, M. Ricciardi, F. Ronga, U. Rubizzo, A. Sanzgiri, F. Sartogo, C. Satriano, L. Satta, E. Scapparone, K. Scholberg, A. Sciubba, P. Serra-Lugaresi, M. Severi, M. Sitta, P. Spinelli, M. Spinetti, M. Spurio, R. Steinberg, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, A. Surdo, G. Tarlé, V. Togo, V. Valente, C. W. Walter, R. Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56[Formula presented]0.05 for [Formula presented]500 TeV and 2.9[Formula presented]0.3 for [Formula presented]5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1[Formula presented]2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from [Formula presented] 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1418-1436
Number of pages19
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Volume56
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

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muons
cosmic rays
physics
energy
primary cosmic rays
energy spectra
estimates

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Ambrosio, M. ; Antolini, R. ; Auriemma, G. ; Baker, R. ; Baldini, A. ; Barbarino, G. C. ; Barish, B. C. ; Battistoni, G. ; Bellotti, R. ; Bemporad, C. ; Bernardini, P. ; Bilokon, H. ; Bisi, V. ; Bloise, C. ; Bosio, T. ; Bower, C. ; Bussino, S. ; Cafagna, F. ; Calicchio, M. ; Campana, D. ; Carboni, M. ; Castellano, M. ; Cecchini, S. ; Cei, F. ; Chiarella, V. ; Corona, A. ; Coutu, Stephane ; De Cataldo, G. ; Dekhissi, H. ; De Marzo, C. ; De Mitri, I. ; De Vincenzi, M. ; Di Credico, A. ; Erriquez, O. ; Fantini, R. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Forti, C. ; Fusco, P. ; Giacomelli, G. ; Giannini, G. ; Giglietto, N. ; Goretti, M. ; Grassi, M. ; Grillo, A. ; Guarino, F. ; Guarnaccia, P. ; Gustavino, C. ; Habig, A. ; Hanson, K. ; Hawthorne, A. ; Heinz, R. ; Hong, J. T. ; Iarocci, E. ; Katsavounidis, E. ; Kearns, E. ; Kyriazopoulou, S. ; Lamanna, E. ; Lane, C. ; Levin, D. S. ; Lipari, P. ; Longley, N. P. ; Longo, M. J. ; Mancarella, G. ; Mandrioli, G. ; Margiotta-Neri, A. ; Marini, A. ; Martello, D. ; Marzari-Chiesa, A. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; Michael, D. G. ; Mikheyev, S. ; Miller, L. ; Monacelli, P. ; Montaruli, T. ; Monteno, M. ; Mufson, S. ; Musser, J. ; Nicoló, D. ; Nolty, R. ; Okada, C. ; Orth, C. ; Osteria, G. ; Palamara, O. ; Parlati, S. ; Patera, V. ; Patrizii, L. ; Pazzi, R. ; Peck, C. W. ; Petrera, S. ; Pistilli, P. ; Popa, V. ; Rainó, A. ; Reynoldson, J. ; Ricciardi, M. ; Ronga, F. ; Rubizzo, U. ; Sanzgiri, A. ; Sartogo, F. ; Satriano, C. ; Satta, L. ; Scapparone, E. ; Scholberg, K. ; Sciubba, A. ; Serra-Lugaresi, P. ; Severi, M. ; Sitta, M. ; Spinelli, P. ; Spinetti, M. ; Spurio, M. ; Steinberg, R. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Surdo, A. ; Tarlé, G. ; Togo, V. ; Valente, V. ; Walter, C. W. ; Webb, R. / High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition. In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. 1997 ; Vol. 56, No. 3. pp. 1418-1436.
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abstract = "Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56[Formula presented]0.05 for [Formula presented]500 TeV and 2.9[Formula presented]0.3 for [Formula presented]5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1[Formula presented]2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from [Formula presented] 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV.",
author = "M. Ambrosio and R. Antolini and G. Auriemma and R. Baker and A. Baldini and Barbarino, {G. C.} and Barish, {B. C.} and G. Battistoni and R. Bellotti and C. Bemporad and P. Bernardini and H. Bilokon and V. Bisi and C. Bloise and T. Bosio and C. Bower and S. Bussino and F. Cafagna and M. Calicchio and D. Campana and M. Carboni and M. Castellano and S. Cecchini and F. Cei and V. Chiarella and A. Corona and Stephane Coutu and {De Cataldo}, G. and H. Dekhissi and {De Marzo}, C. and {De Mitri}, I. and {De Vincenzi}, M. and {Di Credico}, A. and O. Erriquez and R. Fantini and C. Favuzzi and C. Forti and P. Fusco and G. Giacomelli and G. Giannini and N. Giglietto and M. Goretti and M. Grassi and A. Grillo and F. Guarino and P. Guarnaccia and C. Gustavino and A. Habig and K. Hanson and A. Hawthorne and R. Heinz and Hong, {J. T.} and E. Iarocci and E. Katsavounidis and E. Kearns and S. Kyriazopoulou and E. Lamanna and C. Lane and Levin, {D. S.} and P. Lipari and Longley, {N. P.} and Longo, {M. J.} and G. Mancarella and G. Mandrioli and A. Margiotta-Neri and A. Marini and D. Martello and A. Marzari-Chiesa and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and Michael, {D. G.} and S. Mikheyev and L. Miller and P. Monacelli and T. Montaruli and M. Monteno and S. Mufson and J. Musser and D. Nicol{\'o} and R. Nolty and C. Okada and C. Orth and G. Osteria and O. Palamara and S. Parlati and V. Patera and L. Patrizii and R. Pazzi and Peck, {C. W.} and S. Petrera and P. Pistilli and V. Popa and A. Rain{\'o} and J. Reynoldson and M. Ricciardi and F. Ronga and U. Rubizzo and A. Sanzgiri and F. Sartogo and C. Satriano and L. Satta and E. Scapparone and K. Scholberg and A. Sciubba and P. Serra-Lugaresi and M. Severi and M. Sitta and P. Spinelli and M. Spinetti and M. Spurio and R. Steinberg and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and A. Surdo and G. Tarl{\'e} and V. Togo and V. Valente and Walter, {C. W.} and R. Webb",
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Ambrosio, M, Antolini, R, Auriemma, G, Baker, R, Baldini, A, Barbarino, GC, Barish, BC, Battistoni, G, Bellotti, R, Bemporad, C, Bernardini, P, Bilokon, H, Bisi, V, Bloise, C, Bosio, T, Bower, C, Bussino, S, Cafagna, F, Calicchio, M, Campana, D, Carboni, M, Castellano, M, Cecchini, S, Cei, F, Chiarella, V, Corona, A, Coutu, S, De Cataldo, G, Dekhissi, H, De Marzo, C, De Mitri, I, De Vincenzi, M, Di Credico, A, Erriquez, O, Fantini, R, Favuzzi, C, Forti, C, Fusco, P, Giacomelli, G, Giannini, G, Giglietto, N, Goretti, M, Grassi, M, Grillo, A, Guarino, F, Guarnaccia, P, Gustavino, C, Habig, A, Hanson, K, Hawthorne, A, Heinz, R, Hong, JT, Iarocci, E, Katsavounidis, E, Kearns, E, Kyriazopoulou, S, Lamanna, E, Lane, C, Levin, DS, Lipari, P, Longley, NP, Longo, MJ, Mancarella, G, Mandrioli, G, Margiotta-Neri, A, Marini, A, Martello, D, Marzari-Chiesa, A, Mazziotta, MN, Michael, DG, Mikheyev, S, Miller, L, Monacelli, P, Montaruli, T, Monteno, M, Mufson, S, Musser, J, Nicoló, D, Nolty, R, Okada, C, Orth, C, Osteria, G, Palamara, O, Parlati, S, Patera, V, Patrizii, L, Pazzi, R, Peck, CW, Petrera, S, Pistilli, P, Popa, V, Rainó, A, Reynoldson, J, Ricciardi, M, Ronga, F, Rubizzo, U, Sanzgiri, A, Sartogo, F, Satriano, C, Satta, L, Scapparone, E, Scholberg, K, Sciubba, A, Serra-Lugaresi, P, Severi, M, Sitta, M, Spinelli, P, Spinetti, M, Spurio, M, Steinberg, R, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Surdo, A, Tarlé, G, Togo, V, Valente, V, Walter, CW & Webb, R 1997, 'High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition', Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1418-1436. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.56.1418

High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition. / Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bosio, T.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, Stephane; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Fantini, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J. T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicoló, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Rainó, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ricciardi, M.; Ronga, F.; Rubizzo, U.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlé, G.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 01.01.1997, p. 1418-1436.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - High energy cosmic ray physics with underground muons in MACRO. II. Primary spectra and composition

AU - Ambrosio, M.

AU - Antolini, R.

AU - Auriemma, G.

AU - Baker, R.

AU - Baldini, A.

AU - Barbarino, G. C.

AU - Barish, B. C.

AU - Battistoni, G.

AU - Bellotti, R.

AU - Bemporad, C.

AU - Bernardini, P.

AU - Bilokon, H.

AU - Bisi, V.

AU - Bloise, C.

AU - Bosio, T.

AU - Bower, C.

AU - Bussino, S.

AU - Cafagna, F.

AU - Calicchio, M.

AU - Campana, D.

AU - Carboni, M.

AU - Castellano, M.

AU - Cecchini, S.

AU - Cei, F.

AU - Chiarella, V.

AU - Corona, A.

AU - Coutu, Stephane

AU - De Cataldo, G.

AU - Dekhissi, H.

AU - De Marzo, C.

AU - De Mitri, I.

AU - De Vincenzi, M.

AU - Di Credico, A.

AU - Erriquez, O.

AU - Fantini, R.

AU - Favuzzi, C.

AU - Forti, C.

AU - Fusco, P.

AU - Giacomelli, G.

AU - Giannini, G.

AU - Giglietto, N.

AU - Goretti, M.

AU - Grassi, M.

AU - Grillo, A.

AU - Guarino, F.

AU - Guarnaccia, P.

AU - Gustavino, C.

AU - Habig, A.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Hawthorne, A.

AU - Heinz, R.

AU - Hong, J. T.

AU - Iarocci, E.

AU - Katsavounidis, E.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Kyriazopoulou, S.

AU - Lamanna, E.

AU - Lane, C.

AU - Levin, D. S.

AU - Lipari, P.

AU - Longley, N. P.

AU - Longo, M. J.

AU - Mancarella, G.

AU - Mandrioli, G.

AU - Margiotta-Neri, A.

AU - Marini, A.

AU - Martello, D.

AU - Marzari-Chiesa, A.

AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

AU - Michael, D. G.

AU - Mikheyev, S.

AU - Miller, L.

AU - Monacelli, P.

AU - Montaruli, T.

AU - Monteno, M.

AU - Mufson, S.

AU - Musser, J.

AU - Nicoló, D.

AU - Nolty, R.

AU - Okada, C.

AU - Orth, C.

AU - Osteria, G.

AU - Palamara, O.

AU - Parlati, S.

AU - Patera, V.

AU - Patrizii, L.

AU - Pazzi, R.

AU - Peck, C. W.

AU - Petrera, S.

AU - Pistilli, P.

AU - Popa, V.

AU - Rainó, A.

AU - Reynoldson, J.

AU - Ricciardi, M.

AU - Ronga, F.

AU - Rubizzo, U.

AU - Sanzgiri, A.

AU - Sartogo, F.

AU - Satriano, C.

AU - Satta, L.

AU - Scapparone, E.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Sciubba, A.

AU - Serra-Lugaresi, P.

AU - Severi, M.

AU - Sitta, M.

AU - Spinelli, P.

AU - Spinetti, M.

AU - Spurio, M.

AU - Steinberg, R.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Surdo, A.

AU - Tarlé, G.

AU - Togo, V.

AU - Valente, V.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Webb, R.

PY - 1997/1/1

Y1 - 1997/1/1

N2 - Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56[Formula presented]0.05 for [Formula presented]500 TeV and 2.9[Formula presented]0.3 for [Formula presented]5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1[Formula presented]2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from [Formula presented] 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV.

AB - Multimuon data from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been analyzed using a new method, which allows one to estimate the primary cosmic ray fluxes. The estimated all-particle spectrum is higher and flatter than the one obtained from direct measurements but is consistent with EAS array measurements. The spectral indexes of the fitted energy spectrum are 2.56[Formula presented]0.05 for [Formula presented]500 TeV and 2.9[Formula presented]0.3 for [Formula presented]5000 TeV with a gradual change at intermediate energies. The average mass number shows little dependence on the primary energy below 1000 TeV, with a value of 10.1[Formula presented]2.5 at 100 TeV. At higher energies the best fit average mass shows a mild increase with energy, even though no definite conclusion can be reached taking into account errors. The fitted spectra cover a range from [Formula presented] 50 TeV up to several thousand TeV.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0000877285&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0000877285&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.56.1418

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.56.1418

M3 - Article

VL - 56

SP - 1418

EP - 1436

JO - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

JF - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

SN - 0556-2821

IS - 3

ER -