We investigate the current transport characteristics in the electrolyte-dielectric-electrolyte structure commonly used in the in situ controlled breakdown (CBD) fabrication of solid-state nanopores. It is found that the stochastic breakdown process could lead to fidelity issues of false positives (an incorrect indication of a true nanopore formation) and false negatives (inability to detect initial nanopore formation). Robust and deterministic detection of initial physical breakdown to alleviate false positives and false negatives is critical for precise nanopore size control. To this end, we report a high fidelity moving Z-score method based CBD fabrication of solid-state nanopore. We demonstrate 100% success rate of realizing the initial nanopore conductance of 3 ±1 nS (corresponds to size of 1.7 ±0.6 nm) regardless of the dielectric membrane characteristics. Our study also elucidates the Joule heating is the dominant mechanism for electric field-based nanopore enlargement. Single DNA molecule sensing using nanopores fabricated by this method was successfully demonstrated. We anticipate the moving Z-score based CBD method could enable broader access to the solid state nanopore-based single molecule analysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering