Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) is a powerful tool for analyzing surface structures of biological and nonbiological samples. However, when it is used to study fine structures of nanometer-sized microfibrils of epidermal cell walls, one often encounters tremendous challenges to acquire clear and undistorted images because of two major issues: (1) Preparation of samples suitable for high resolution imaging; due to the delicateness of some plant materials, such as onion epidermal cell walls, many things can happen during sample processing, which subsequently result in damaged samples or introduce artifacts. (2) Difficulties to acquire clear images of samples which are electron-beam sensitive and prone to charging artifacts at magnifications over 100,000×. In this chapter we described detailed procedures for sample preparation and conditions for high-resolution FESEM imaging of onion epidermal cell walls. The methods can be readily adapted for other wall materials.