High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD)

David J. Hall, James H. Tutt, Matthew R. Soman, Andrew D. Holland, Neil J. Murray, Bernd Schmitt, Thorsten Schmitt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 μm (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 μm alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 μm (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 7 2013
EventUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 25 2013Aug 26 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume8859
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X

Other

OtherUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period8/25/138/26/13

Fingerprint

Charge-coupled Device
Soft X-ray
Charge coupled devices
Spectrometry
x ray spectroscopy
EMCCD
charge coupled devices
High Resolution
Electron
X rays
Electrons
Spatial Resolution
high resolution
Observatory
electrons
Spectrometer
Gratings
High Speed
Detector
spatial resolution

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Hall, D. J., Tutt, J. H., Soman, M. R., Holland, A. D., Murray, N. J., Schmitt, B., & Schmitt, T. (2013). High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). In UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII [88590H] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 8859). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2024010
Hall, David J. ; Tutt, James H. ; Soman, Matthew R. ; Holland, Andrew D. ; Murray, Neil J. ; Schmitt, Bernd ; Schmitt, Thorsten. / High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII. 2013. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
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title = "High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD)",
abstract = "The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 μm (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 μm alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 μm (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.",
author = "Hall, {David J.} and Tutt, {James H.} and Soman, {Matthew R.} and Holland, {Andrew D.} and Murray, {Neil J.} and Bernd Schmitt and Thorsten Schmitt",
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Hall, DJ, Tutt, JH, Soman, MR, Holland, AD, Murray, NJ, Schmitt, B & Schmitt, T 2013, High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). in UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII., 88590H, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 8859, UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII, San Diego, CA, United States, 8/25/13. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2024010

High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). / Hall, David J.; Tutt, James H.; Soman, Matthew R.; Holland, Andrew D.; Murray, Neil J.; Schmitt, Bernd; Schmitt, Thorsten.

UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII. 2013. 88590H (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 8859).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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N2 - The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 μm (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 μm alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 μm (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.

AB - The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 μm (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 μm alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 μm (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.

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Hall DJ, Tutt JH, Soman MR, Holland AD, Murray NJ, Schmitt B et al. High-resolution soft X-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD). In UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XVIII. 2013. 88590H. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2024010