Higher Levels of Masculine Gender Role Stress in Masculine than in Feminine Nations: A Thirteen-Nations Study

W. A. Arrindell, Sonja van Well, Annemarie M. Kolk, Dick P.H. Barelds, Tian P.S. Oei, Pui Yi Lau, G. Aguilar, N. Bagés, D. P.H. Barelds, R. Bentall, M. Bouvard, K. R. Bridges, A. Buchanan, V. E. Caballo, M. G. Calvo, G. Canalda, J. Castro, W. R. Crozier, M. Davis, M. EisemannR. J. Farrer, L. Feldman, W. Frindte, T. Gärling, P. Gaszner, R. Gillholm, R. Glavak, M. Gustafsson, S. B. Hansson, P. Harris, C. Hatzichristou, B. L. Hudson, S. Iwawaki, M. Johnston, J. Kállai, E. Kasielke, J. Kenardy, A. M.M. Kolk, P. Y. Lau, C. C. Leong, I. Montgomery, T. P.S. Oei, D. L. Palenzuela, D. Pennington, M. Peter, M. J. Pickersgill, L. A. Recinos, J. C. Richards, J. Richter, O. Rydén, E. Sanavio, C. Sica, M. A. Simón, M. Surman, B. Torres, S. van Well, F. Zaldívar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such to a clearly lesser extent (low national MAS scores). Supporting this expectation, a large country-level correlation of +.64 (p = .01) was found across 13 countries (n = 6,420) between national MAS scores and national MGRS scores. In line with previous findings, Hofstede's MAS measure was found to be conceptually distinct from Bem's measure of instrumentality. Implications for intervention and further studies are briefly pinpointed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-67
Number of pages17
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anthropology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)


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