RNA viruses induce specialized membranous structures for use in genome replication. These structures are often referred to as replication organelles (ROs). ROs exhibit distinct lipid composition relative to other cellular membranes. In many picornaviruses, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) is a marker of the RO. Studies to date indicate that the viral 3A protein hijacks a PI4 kinase to induce PI4P by a mechanism unrelated to the cellular pathway, which requires Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, GBF1, and ADP ribosylation factor 1, Arf1. Here we show that a picornaviral 3CD protein is sufficient to induce synthesis of not only PI4P but also phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Synthesis of PI4P requires GBF1 and Arf1. We identified 3CD derivatives: 3CDmand 3CmD, that we used to show that distinct domains of 3CD function upstream of GBF1 and downstream of Arf1 activation. These same 3CD derivatives still supported induction of PIP2 and PC, suggesting that pathways and corresponding mechanisms used to induce these phospholipids are distinct. Phospholipid induction by 3CD is localized to the perinuclear region of the cell, the outcome of which is the proliferation of membranes in this area of the cell. We conclude that a single viral protein can serve as a master regulator of cellular phospholipid and membrane biogenesis, likely by commandeering normal cellular pathways.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology