Combined antiretroviral drug regimens have promoted clinical, immunologic, and virologic improvements in AIDS patients. Nevertheless, these therapies are associated with derangements in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, we examined the effects of a representative protease inhibitor (nelfinavir), a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nevirapine), and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (zidovudine) on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells. To examine these processes, C2C12 myocytes were treated with increasing concentrations of nelfinavir, nevirapine, or zidovudine for 1 or 2 days, and rates of protein synthesis were determined by measuring [35S]methionine/cysteine incorporation into cellular proteins. Treatment of myocytes with therapeutic concentrations of nelfinavir, nevirapine, or zidovudine for 48 hr decreased protein synthesis by 14-20%. An ∼60% decline was observed in cells treated with higher concentrations of nevirapine or nelfinavir. In contrast, the basal rate of protein synthesis was not affected when cells were incubated with these compounds for 24 hr. Therapeutic concentrations of nelfinavir and nevirapine did not impair the anabolic effect of insulin on protein synthesis. However, zidovudine suppressed the stimulatory effect of insulin. The decreased protein synthesis induced by nelfinavir and zidovudine was associated with decreases in the phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) and the repressor binding protein 4EBP1, while the inhibitory effect of nevirapine was mainly associated with a decline in phosphorylated 4EBP1. In conclusion, nelfinavir, nevirapine, and zidovudine treatments decreased protein synthesis in myocytes and this effect was correlated with a reduction in the phosphorylation level of proteins that regulate translation initiation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases