Objective: To assess changes in adaptive, emotional, and behavioral functioning over four years in children and adolescents with hemophilia and with or without HIV infection and to evaluate the relationship of these changes to immune status. Methods: Participants were 277 HIV-seropositive and 126 HIV-seronegative boys with hemophilia. Participants with HIV infection were divided into three groups based on trajectory of immune functioning (CD4+ cell counts) over the course of the study. Caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Pediatric Behavior Scale (PBS). Results: Results showed declining Vineland Communication scores for participants with consistently poor immune functioning. These participants also started with more PBS Attention Deficit and Deviation symptoms, which then decreased more sharply than for other groups. Low CD4+ counts were consistently associated with more Health and Depression-Anxiety symptoms on the PBS. However, with few exceptions, group means remained within normal limits. Conclusions: According to their caregivers, boys with hemophilia and HIV infection showed considerable resilience with regard to adaptive behavior and emotional and behavioral problems. However, over time changes occurred in these areas that appear to be related to immune functioning.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology