Hourly associations between ambient air pollution and emergency ambulance calls in one central Chinese city: Implications for hourly air quality standards

Siqi Ai, Changke Wang, Zhengmin Qian, Yingjie Cui, Yuying Liu, Bipin Kumar Acharya, Xiangyan Sun, Leslie Hinyard, Daire R. Jansson, Lijie Qin, Hualiang Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Most studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution have been conducted on a daily time scale, while hourly associations remain unclear. Methods: We collected the hourly data of emergency ambulance calls (EACs), ambient air pollution, and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2016 in Luoyang, a central Chinese city in Henan Province. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the hourly effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2) on EACs for all natural causes and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We further examined the effect modification by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure using stratified analyses. Results: In the single-pollutant models, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were associated with an immediate increase in all-cause morbidity at 0, 0, 12, 10 h, separately, after exposure to these pollutants (excess risks: 0.19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%, 0.35%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.24%), 0.28% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.54%) and 0.52% (95% CI: 0.06%, 0.99%), respectively). These effects remained generally stable in two-pollutant models. SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with an immediate increase in risk of cardiovascular morbidity, but the effects on respiratory morbidity were relatively more delayed. The stratified analyses suggested that temperature could modify the association between PM2.5 and EACs, humidity and atmospheric pressure could modify the association between SO2 and EACs. Conclusions: Our study provides new evidence that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 may have transiently acute effects on all-cause morbidity and subacute effects on respiratory morbidity. SO2 and NO2 may also have immediate effects on cardiovascular morbidity. Findings of this study have important implications for the formation of hourly air quality standards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number133956
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume696
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2019

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Ambulances
Air quality standards
Air pollution
ambient air
morbidity
air quality
atmospheric pollution
confidence interval
Atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric humidity
Air Pollutants
atmospheric pressure
pollutant
Health
Temperature
city
quality standard
effect
Air
relative humidity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Ai, Siqi ; Wang, Changke ; Qian, Zhengmin ; Cui, Yingjie ; Liu, Yuying ; Acharya, Bipin Kumar ; Sun, Xiangyan ; Hinyard, Leslie ; Jansson, Daire R. ; Qin, Lijie ; Lin, Hualiang. / Hourly associations between ambient air pollution and emergency ambulance calls in one central Chinese city : Implications for hourly air quality standards. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2019 ; Vol. 696.
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abstract = "Background: Most studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution have been conducted on a daily time scale, while hourly associations remain unclear. Methods: We collected the hourly data of emergency ambulance calls (EACs), ambient air pollution, and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2016 in Luoyang, a central Chinese city in Henan Province. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the hourly effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2) on EACs for all natural causes and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We further examined the effect modification by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure using stratified analyses. Results: In the single-pollutant models, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were associated with an immediate increase in all-cause morbidity at 0, 0, 12, 10 h, separately, after exposure to these pollutants (excess risks: 0.19{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.03{\%}, 0.35{\%}), 0.13{\%} (95{\%} CI: 0.02{\%}, 0.24{\%}), 0.28{\%} (95{\%} CI: 0.01{\%}, 0.54{\%}) and 0.52{\%} (95{\%} CI: 0.06{\%}, 0.99{\%}), respectively). These effects remained generally stable in two-pollutant models. SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with an immediate increase in risk of cardiovascular morbidity, but the effects on respiratory morbidity were relatively more delayed. The stratified analyses suggested that temperature could modify the association between PM2.5 and EACs, humidity and atmospheric pressure could modify the association between SO2 and EACs. Conclusions: Our study provides new evidence that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 may have transiently acute effects on all-cause morbidity and subacute effects on respiratory morbidity. SO2 and NO2 may also have immediate effects on cardiovascular morbidity. Findings of this study have important implications for the formation of hourly air quality standards.",
author = "Siqi Ai and Changke Wang and Zhengmin Qian and Yingjie Cui and Yuying Liu and Acharya, {Bipin Kumar} and Xiangyan Sun and Leslie Hinyard and Jansson, {Daire R.} and Lijie Qin and Hualiang Lin",
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Hourly associations between ambient air pollution and emergency ambulance calls in one central Chinese city : Implications for hourly air quality standards. / Ai, Siqi; Wang, Changke; Qian, Zhengmin; Cui, Yingjie; Liu, Yuying; Acharya, Bipin Kumar; Sun, Xiangyan; Hinyard, Leslie; Jansson, Daire R.; Qin, Lijie; Lin, Hualiang.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 696, 133956, 15.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hourly associations between ambient air pollution and emergency ambulance calls in one central Chinese city

T2 - Implications for hourly air quality standards

AU - Ai, Siqi

AU - Wang, Changke

AU - Qian, Zhengmin

AU - Cui, Yingjie

AU - Liu, Yuying

AU - Acharya, Bipin Kumar

AU - Sun, Xiangyan

AU - Hinyard, Leslie

AU - Jansson, Daire R.

AU - Qin, Lijie

AU - Lin, Hualiang

PY - 2019/12/15

Y1 - 2019/12/15

N2 - Background: Most studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution have been conducted on a daily time scale, while hourly associations remain unclear. Methods: We collected the hourly data of emergency ambulance calls (EACs), ambient air pollution, and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2016 in Luoyang, a central Chinese city in Henan Province. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the hourly effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2) on EACs for all natural causes and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We further examined the effect modification by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure using stratified analyses. Results: In the single-pollutant models, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were associated with an immediate increase in all-cause morbidity at 0, 0, 12, 10 h, separately, after exposure to these pollutants (excess risks: 0.19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%, 0.35%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.24%), 0.28% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.54%) and 0.52% (95% CI: 0.06%, 0.99%), respectively). These effects remained generally stable in two-pollutant models. SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with an immediate increase in risk of cardiovascular morbidity, but the effects on respiratory morbidity were relatively more delayed. The stratified analyses suggested that temperature could modify the association between PM2.5 and EACs, humidity and atmospheric pressure could modify the association between SO2 and EACs. Conclusions: Our study provides new evidence that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 may have transiently acute effects on all-cause morbidity and subacute effects on respiratory morbidity. SO2 and NO2 may also have immediate effects on cardiovascular morbidity. Findings of this study have important implications for the formation of hourly air quality standards.

AB - Background: Most studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution have been conducted on a daily time scale, while hourly associations remain unclear. Methods: We collected the hourly data of emergency ambulance calls (EACs), ambient air pollution, and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2016 in Luoyang, a central Chinese city in Henan Province. We used a generalized additive model to estimate the hourly effects of ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2) on EACs for all natural causes and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We further examined the effect modification by temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure using stratified analyses. Results: In the single-pollutant models, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 were associated with an immediate increase in all-cause morbidity at 0, 0, 12, 10 h, separately, after exposure to these pollutants (excess risks: 0.19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%, 0.35%), 0.13% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.24%), 0.28% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.54%) and 0.52% (95% CI: 0.06%, 0.99%), respectively). These effects remained generally stable in two-pollutant models. SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with an immediate increase in risk of cardiovascular morbidity, but the effects on respiratory morbidity were relatively more delayed. The stratified analyses suggested that temperature could modify the association between PM2.5 and EACs, humidity and atmospheric pressure could modify the association between SO2 and EACs. Conclusions: Our study provides new evidence that higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 may have transiently acute effects on all-cause morbidity and subacute effects on respiratory morbidity. SO2 and NO2 may also have immediate effects on cardiovascular morbidity. Findings of this study have important implications for the formation of hourly air quality standards.

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