How much is too much? The development and validation of the exercise dependence scale

Heather A. Hausenblas, Danielle Symons Downs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

228 Scopus citations


This paper presents five studies with 2,420 total participants on the development and validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS), which is conceptualized based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for substance dependence, and differentiates among at-risk, nondependent-symptomatic, and nondependent-asymptomatic exercisers. Results of the studies revealed evidence for the a priori hypothesized components, acceptable test-retest and internal consistency reliability, and content and concurrent validity of the EDS. Individuals at-risk for exercise dependence reported more strenuous exercise, perfectionism, and self-efficacy compared to the nondependent groups. The findings provide initial support for the EDS and indicate the need for a multifaceted approach to its conceptualization and measurement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-404
Number of pages18
JournalPsychology and Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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