Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids: Final Results ∗: On observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

Nancy Remage Evans, H. Moritz Günther, Howard E. Bond, Gail H. Schaefer, Brian D. Mason, Margarita Karovska, Evan Tingle, Scott Wolk, Scott Engle, Edward Guinan, Ignazio Pillitteri, Charles Proffitt, Pierre Kervella, Alexandre Gallenne, Richard I. Anderson, Maxwell Moe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cepheids in multiple systems provide information on the outcome of the formation of massive stars. They can also lead to exotic end-stage objects. This study concludes our survey of 70 galactic Cepheids using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) with images at two wavelengths to identify companions closer than 5″. In the entire WFC3 survey we identify 16 probable companions for 13 Cepheids. The 7 Cepheids having resolved candidate companions within 2″ all have the surprising property of themselves being spectroscopic binaries (as compared with a 29% incidence of spectroscopic binaries in the general Cepheid population). This is a strong suggestion that an inner binary is linked to the scenario of a third companion within a few hundred astronomical units. This characteristic is continued for more widely separated companions. Under a model where the outer companion is formed first, it is unlikely that it can anticipate a subsequent inner binary. Rather, it is more likely that a triple system has undergone dynamical interaction, resulting in one star moving outward to its current location. Chandra and Gaia data as well as radial velocities and HST/STIS and IUE spectra are used to derive properties of the components of the Cepheid systems. The colors of the companion candidates show a change in distribution at approximately 2000 au separations, from a range including both hot and cool colors for closer companions, to only low-mass companions for wider separations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number81
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume905
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 10 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids: Final Results ∗: On observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this