Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight

Ken Ichi Iwasaki, Benjamin D. Levine, Rong Zhang, Julie H. Zuckerman, James Anthony Pawelczyk, André Diedrich, Andrew C. Ertl, James F. Cox, William H. Cooke, Cole A. Giller, Chester A. Ray, Lynda D. Lane, Jay C. Buckey, Friedhelm J. Baisch, Dwain L. Eckberg, David Robertson, Italo Biaggioni, C. Gunnar Blomqvist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts ∼72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low-(0.02-0.07 Hz), low-(0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA), but not during or after spaceflight. Absolute and percentage reductions of mean (± s.e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 ± 3 cm s -1 after versus -14 ± 3 cm s -1 before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 ± 4.8% after versus -24.8 ± 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27% after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with preflight values, which is also consistent with improved autoregulation. We conclude that human cerebral autoregulation is preserved, and possibly even improved, by short-duration spaceflight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)799-810
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Physiology
Volume579
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2007

Fingerprint

Cerebrovascular Circulation
Space Flight
Blood Flow Velocity
Homeostasis
Weightlessness
Middle Cerebral Artery
Suction
Arterial Pressure
Orthostatic Intolerance
Astronauts
Bed Rest
Cerebral Arteries
Body Fluids
Blood Vessels
Analysis of Variance
Respiration
Head

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology

Cite this

Iwasaki, K. I., Levine, B. D., Zhang, R., Zuckerman, J. H., Pawelczyk, J. A., Diedrich, A., ... Blomqvist, C. G. (2007). Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight. Journal of Physiology, 579(3), 799-810. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119636
Iwasaki, Ken Ichi ; Levine, Benjamin D. ; Zhang, Rong ; Zuckerman, Julie H. ; Pawelczyk, James Anthony ; Diedrich, André ; Ertl, Andrew C. ; Cox, James F. ; Cooke, William H. ; Giller, Cole A. ; Ray, Chester A. ; Lane, Lynda D. ; Buckey, Jay C. ; Baisch, Friedhelm J. ; Eckberg, Dwain L. ; Robertson, David ; Biaggioni, Italo ; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar. / Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight. In: Journal of Physiology. 2007 ; Vol. 579, No. 3. pp. 799-810.
@article{bb5492de4641473eaf7fb24f01b97382,
title = "Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight",
abstract = "Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts ∼72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low-(0.02-0.07 Hz), low-(0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA), but not during or after spaceflight. Absolute and percentage reductions of mean (± s.e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 ± 3 cm s -1 after versus -14 ± 3 cm s -1 before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 ± 4.8{\%} after versus -24.8 ± 4.4{\%} before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27{\%} after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with preflight values, which is also consistent with improved autoregulation. We conclude that human cerebral autoregulation is preserved, and possibly even improved, by short-duration spaceflight.",
author = "Iwasaki, {Ken Ichi} and Levine, {Benjamin D.} and Rong Zhang and Zuckerman, {Julie H.} and Pawelczyk, {James Anthony} and Andr{\'e} Diedrich and Ertl, {Andrew C.} and Cox, {James F.} and Cooke, {William H.} and Giller, {Cole A.} and Ray, {Chester A.} and Lane, {Lynda D.} and Buckey, {Jay C.} and Baisch, {Friedhelm J.} and Eckberg, {Dwain L.} and David Robertson and Italo Biaggioni and Blomqvist, {C. Gunnar}",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119636",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "579",
pages = "799--810",
journal = "Journal of Physiology",
issn = "0022-3751",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

Iwasaki, KI, Levine, BD, Zhang, R, Zuckerman, JH, Pawelczyk, JA, Diedrich, A, Ertl, AC, Cox, JF, Cooke, WH, Giller, CA, Ray, CA, Lane, LD, Buckey, JC, Baisch, FJ, Eckberg, DL, Robertson, D, Biaggioni, I & Blomqvist, CG 2007, 'Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight', Journal of Physiology, vol. 579, no. 3, pp. 799-810. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119636

Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight. / Iwasaki, Ken Ichi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Pawelczyk, James Anthony; Diedrich, André; Ertl, Andrew C.; Cox, James F.; Cooke, William H.; Giller, Cole A.; Ray, Chester A.; Lane, Lynda D.; Buckey, Jay C.; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Blomqvist, C. Gunnar.

In: Journal of Physiology, Vol. 579, No. 3, 15.03.2007, p. 799-810.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Human cerebral autoregulation before, during and after spaceflight

AU - Iwasaki, Ken Ichi

AU - Levine, Benjamin D.

AU - Zhang, Rong

AU - Zuckerman, Julie H.

AU - Pawelczyk, James Anthony

AU - Diedrich, André

AU - Ertl, Andrew C.

AU - Cox, James F.

AU - Cooke, William H.

AU - Giller, Cole A.

AU - Ray, Chester A.

AU - Lane, Lynda D.

AU - Buckey, Jay C.

AU - Baisch, Friedhelm J.

AU - Eckberg, Dwain L.

AU - Robertson, David

AU - Biaggioni, Italo

AU - Blomqvist, C. Gunnar

PY - 2007/3/15

Y1 - 2007/3/15

N2 - Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts ∼72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low-(0.02-0.07 Hz), low-(0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA), but not during or after spaceflight. Absolute and percentage reductions of mean (± s.e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 ± 3 cm s -1 after versus -14 ± 3 cm s -1 before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 ± 4.8% after versus -24.8 ± 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27% after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with preflight values, which is also consistent with improved autoregulation. We conclude that human cerebral autoregulation is preserved, and possibly even improved, by short-duration spaceflight.

AB - Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts ∼72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low-(0.02-0.07 Hz), low-(0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA), but not during or after spaceflight. Absolute and percentage reductions of mean (± s.e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 ± 3 cm s -1 after versus -14 ± 3 cm s -1 before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 ± 4.8% after versus -24.8 ± 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 26, 23 and 27% after 1 and 2 weeks in space and on landing day, respectively, compared with preflight values, which is also consistent with improved autoregulation. We conclude that human cerebral autoregulation is preserved, and possibly even improved, by short-duration spaceflight.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947102068&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947102068&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119636

DO - 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119636

M3 - Article

C2 - 17185344

AN - SCOPUS:33947102068

VL - 579

SP - 799

EP - 810

JO - Journal of Physiology

JF - Journal of Physiology

SN - 0022-3751

IS - 3

ER -